Nisin Market Research Report - Forecast till 2027

Nisin Market Research Report: Information By Form (Powder and Liquid), Application (Bakery & Confectionery, Dairy & Frozen Desserts, Beverages, Meat, Poultry & Seafood Products, Canned Products and Others) and Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World) - Forecast till 2027

ID: MRFR/F-B & N/8892-HCR | August 2022 | Region: Global | 90 Pages         

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2. MARKET INTRODUCTION

2.1. Market Definition

2.2. Scope of the Study

2.2.1. Research Objectives

2.2.2. Assumptions & Limitations

2.3. Market Structure

3. MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research Process

3.2. Secondary Research

3.3. Primary Research

3.4. Forecast Model

4. MARKET LANDSCAPE

4.1. Supply Chain Analysis

4.1.1. Raw Material Suppliers

4.1.2. Manufacturers/Producers

4.1.3. Distributors/Retailers/Wholesalers/E-Commerce

4.1.4. End Users

4.2. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

4.2.1. Threat of New Entrants

4.2.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers

4.2.3. Bargaining Power of Suppliers

4.2.4. Threat of Substitutes

4.2.5. Internal Rivalry

5. MARKET DYNAMICS OF THE GLOBAL NISIN MARKET

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Drivers

5.3. Restraints

5.4. Opportunities

5.5. Challenges

6. GLOBAL NISIN MARKET, BY FORM

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Powder

6.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

6.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

6.3. Liquid

6.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

6.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

7. GLOBAL NISIN MARKET, BY APPLICATION

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Bakery & Confectionery

7.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

7.3. Dairy & Frozen Desserts

7.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

7.4. Beverages

7.4.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.4.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

7.5. Meat, Poultry & Seafood Products

7.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

7.6. Canned Products

7.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

7.7. Others

7.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

8. GLOBAL NISIN MARKET, BY REGION

8.1. Introduction

8.2. North America

8.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.2.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.2.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

8.2.5. US

8.2.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.2.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.2.6. Canada

8.2.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.2.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.2.7. Mexico

8.2.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.2.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3. Europe

8.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

8.3.5. Germany

8.3.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3.6. UK

8.3.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3.7. France

8.3.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3.8. Spain

8.3.8.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.8.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3.9. Italy

8.3.9.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.9.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.3.10. Rest of Europe

8.3.10.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.3.10.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.4. Asia-Pacific

8.4.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.4.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.4.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.4.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

8.4.5. China

8.4.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.4.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.4.6. Japan

8.4.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.4.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.4.7. India

8.4.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.4.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.4.8. Australia & New Zealand

8.4.8.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.4.8.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.4.9. Rest of Asia-Pacific

8.4.9.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.4.9.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.5. Rest of the World

8.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.5.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

8.5.5. South America

8.5.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.5.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.5.6. Middle East

8.5.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.5.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

8.5.7. Africa

8.5.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

8.5.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Market Strategy

9.3. Key Development Analysis

(Expansions/Mergers & Acquisitions/Joint Ventures/New Product Developments/Agreements/Investments)

10. COMPANY PROFILES

10.1. DSM

10.1.1. Company Overview

10.1.2. Financial Updates

10.1.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.1.4. Strategy

10.1.5. Key Developments

10.1.6. SWOT Analysis

10.2. Galactic

10.2.1. Company Overview

10.2.2. Financial Updates

10.2.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.2.4. Strategy

10.2.5. Key Developments

10.2.6. SWOT Analysis

10.3. DuPont

10.3.1. Company Overview

10.3.2. Financial Updates

10.3.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.3.4. Strategy

10.3.5. Key Developments

10.3.6. SWOT Analysis

10.4. Shandong Freda Biotechnology

10.4.1. Company Overview

10.4.2. Financial Updates

10.4.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.4.4. Strategy

10.4.5. Key Developments

10.4.6. SWOT Analysis

10.5. Siveele B.V.

10.5.1. Company Overview

10.5.2. Financial Updates

10.5.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.5.4. Strategy

10.5.5. Key Developments

10.5.6. SWOT Analysis

10.6. Cayman Chemicals

10.6.1. Company Overview

10.6.2. Financial Updates

10.6.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.6.4. Strategy

10.6.5. Key Developments

10.6.6. SWOT Analysis

10.7. Chihon Biotechnology

10.7.1. Company Overview

10.7.2. Financial Updates

10.7.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.7.4. Strategy

10.7.5. Key Developments

10.7.6. SWOT Analysis

10.8. Handary S.A.

10.8.1. Company Overview

10.8.2. Financial Updates

10.8.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.8.4. Strategy

10.8.5. Key Developments

10.8.6. SWOT Analysis

10.9. Zhejiang Silver-Elephant Bioengineering

10.9.1. Company Overview

10.9.2. Financial Updates

10.9.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.9.4. Strategy

10.9.5. Key Developments

10.9.6. SWOT Analysis

10.10. Mayasan Biotech

10.10.1. Company Overview

10.10.2. Financial Updates

10.10.3. Product/Business Segment Overview

10.10.4. Strategy

10.10.5. Key Developments

10.10.6. SWOT Analysis

11. CONCLUSION

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Global Nisin Market, by Region, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 2 Global Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 3 Global Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 4 North America: Nisin Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 5 North America: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 6 North America: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 7 US: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 8 US: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 9 Canada: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 10 Canada: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 11 Mexico: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 12 Mexico: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 13 Europe: Nisin Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 14 Europe: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 15 Europe: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 16 Germany: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 17 Germany: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 18 France: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 19 France: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 20 Italy: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 21 Italy: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 22 Spain: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 23 Spain: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 24 UK: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 25 UK: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 26 Rest of Europe: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 27 Rest of Europe: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 28 Asia-Pacific: Nisin Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 29 Asia-Pacific: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 30 Asia-Pacific: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 31 China: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 32 China: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 33 India: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 34 India: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 35 Japan: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 36 Japan: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 37 Australia & New Zealand: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 38 Australia & New Zealand: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 39 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 40 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 41 Rest of the World (RoW): Nisin Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 42 Rest of the World (RoW): Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 43 Rest of the World (RoW): Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 44 South America: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 45 South America: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 46 Middle East: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 47 Middle East: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 48 Africa: Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

Table 49 Africa: Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 Global Nisin Market Segmentation

FIGURE 2 Forecast Research Methodology

FIGURE 3 Five Forces Analysis of the Global Nisin Market

FIGURE 4 Value Chain of the Global Nisin Market

FIGURE 5 Share of the Global Nisin Market in 2020, by Country (%)

FIGURE 6 Global Nisin Market, by Region, 2020–2027

FIGURE 7 Global Nisin Market Size, by Form, 2020

FIGURE 8 Share of the Global Nisin Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (%)

FIGURE 9 Global Nisin Market Size, by Application, 2020

FIGURE 10 Share of the Global Nisin Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (%)

Nisin Market

Nisin Market size is expected to cross USD 560 Million by 2027 at a CAGR of 4.2% during the forecast period of 2020 to 2027.

Segmentation

By Form Powder Liquid
By Application Bakery & Confectionery Dairy & Frozen Desserts Beverages Meat Poultry & Seafood Products Canned Products
By Region North America Europe Asia Pacific Rest Of The World

Key Players

  • DSM (Netherlands)
  • Galactic (Belgium)
  • DuPont (US)
  • Shandong Freda Biotechnology (China)
  • Siveele B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Cayman Chemicals (US)
  • Chihon Biotechnology (China)
  • Handary S.A. (Belgium)
  • Zhejiang Silver-Elephant Bioengineering (China)
  • Mayasan Biotech (Turkey)

Drivers

  • Increasing demand for packed and frozen food products
  • Rising awareness regarding the health hazards of consuming chemical preservatives
  • Increasing demand for clean label products
  • Hike in demand for nisin in beverages
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Nisin Market Analysis


The Nisin market is witnessing substantial growth due to its great application in the preservation of temperature-sensitive food products. The global nisin market share was valued at USD 317.9 million in 2020. The demand for packaged foods, dairy products, and frozen food is increasing with the increase in disposable income of people which generates huge demand for natural preservatives such as nisin.


Nisin is a bactericidal food preservative, a polycyclic peptide,  obtained from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It is effective against a wide range of food spoiling, gram-positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria, Clostridium botulinum, and their spores. Nisin prevents the need for heat sterilization of packaged food products before preserving them as it is effective in controlling microbial growth in normal and frozen temperatures too. The Global Nisin market is expected to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate ( CAGR ) of 7.2 % over the forecast period.


With an increase in awareness about the bad effects of chemical preservatives the demand for natural preservatives such as nisin has increased significantly. It is effective in controlling a wide range of microbes and can be easily applied to food products during their packaging. The growth of the canned food industry is also increasing the demand for nisin for its effectiveness to control Clostridium botulinum, a problematic bacteria of canned foods. The global nisin market is expected to be worth USD 490 million by the end of the current forecast period in 2028.


 


Covid-19 Analysis


Covid-19 pandemic hurt the global nisin market badly. The closure of packaged food production units to curb the virus spread led to a drastic fall in the demand for preservatives like nisin. However, the demand for packaged products rose during the period but the demand could not be met with supply. The restrictions on the movement of goods and transportation services also disrupted the supply chain of the global nisin market. Moreover, strict regulations regarding the operations of laboratories hampered the production rate of nisin itself. Furthermore, the poor performance of the tourism and hospitality sector affected the market indirectly. However, the market is showing a quick recovery after the relaxation of restriction measures and is expected to surpass the earlier growth rate quickly.


 


Market Dynamics


Drivers


The increasing demand for packaged, pre-processed, and frozen foods are the major factors driving the growth of the Global nisin market. The growing popularity of these food products along with the growing disposable income of people is creating a favorable environment for market growth. Moreover, the rising concern about the negative health effects of chemical preservatives is giving the way for the growth of the natural preservatives market.


Nisin is a suitable preservative for temperature-sensitive food products like dairy and frozen food as it prevents the need for heat sterilization of products. Therefore, nisin being a highly effective and completely safe natural preservative, it is getting good demand from a wide range of food products industries. 


 


Restraints


The complex production process of nisin, requiring sophisticated Technology, is the major restraining factor for the growth of the global nisin market. Moreover, many food packaging industries prefer to use preservative technology instead of preservative ingredients, thereby hampering the market growth. Furthermore, the non-availability of controlled release methods or packaging materials is also a major hindrance to the popularity of nisin as a food preservative.


 


Technology Analysis


Nisin is a polycyclic antibacterial peptide, used as a food preservative, obtained from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It is a bacteriocin that is used to kill bacteria that spoil our foods like lactic acid bacteria, clostridium, listeria, etc. Unlike other bacteriocins, nisin is effective for killing a wide range of gram-positive bacteria and also gram-negative bacteria if given heat treatment.


Nisin is used as a preservative in cheese, meats, ice cream, pickles, and beverages to inhibit the growth of food spoiling gram-positive bacteria. It is available in the market as a light brown powder along with a substrate containing sodium chloride and fermentation solids. One of the biggest advantages of using nisin is that it reduces nutritional loss by preventing the need for heat sterilization of food products.


 


Study Objectives


The specific objectives of this market report on the market are given below:



  • To provide a complete overview of the market.

  • To analyze and forecast the market in terms of value and volume.

  • To provide information about the impact of covid 19 on the market and market response thereafter.

  • To point out the problems and prospects of the market.

  • To give technical details about the product.

  • To provide an overview of the regional markets and other market segments.

  • To identify the key players of the nisin industry.


 


Segment Analysis


Segmentation of the Global market, by form



  • Powder

  • Liquid


The Powder form dominates the Global market owing to its ease of use. Nisin in powder form can be mixed with any food product or beverage as a preservative during packaging.


However, the liquid form is witnessing substantial growth owing to its greater ease of application than powder form. As nisin is to be added in small doses of 20-25 ppm, it is difficult to measure such an amount in powder form.


Segmentation of the Global market, by Application



  • Bakery and confectionery

  • Dairy and frozen desserts

  • Beverages

  • Meat, Poultry & Seafood Products

  • Canned Products

  • Others


Dairy and frozen desserts are the largest end-user of nisin as a preservative. Their thermal sensitivity and highly prone to bacterial attack nature generate huge demand for bactericidal preservatives. As the application of nisin does not require thermal treatment, it is a suitable preservative for dairy and frozen desserts like cheese, butter, ice creams, etc. 


 
Regional Analysis


The different regional markets for the global market are:


North America



  • US

  • Canada


Europe



  • UK

  • Germany

  • France

  • Italy

  • Spain

  • Rest of Europe


 Asia-Pacific



  • China

  • India

  • Japan

  • Australia & New Zealand

  • Rest of Asia-Pacific


Rest of the world ( RoW )



  • The Middle East

  • Africa

  • South America


North America accounts for the largest share of the global nisin market. Huge demand for packaged food items and pre-prepared food products generates large demand for natural preservatives in this region. In 2019, North America alone accounted for about 35% of the total market share. Factors like high disposable income of the people and adoption of a busy lifestyle also indirectly contribute to the growth of the nisin market in this region.


Europe follows North America to become the second-largest market. The high demand for natural and healthy preservatives is increasing the demand for nisin in this region. Moreover, the rising demand for dairy products, frozen food, and canned foods is likely to boost market growth.


Asia-Pacific is the fastest-growing regional segment with a rapidly developing food processing industry. Increasing awareness regarding the use of natural preservatives, rise in disposable income and higher population are factors promoting market growth in this region. The Latin America, Middle East, and African market segment are expected to grow at a moderate rate over the forecast period.


 


Competitive Landscape


The major global companies playing a key role in the nisin market are :



  • DSM (Netherlands)

  • Galactic (Belgium)

  • DuPont (US)

  • Shandong Freda Biotechnology (China)

  • Siveele B.V. (Netherlands)

  • Cayman Chemicals (US)

  • Chihon Biotechnology (China)

  • Handary S.A. (Belgium)

  • Zhejiang Silver-Elephant Bioengineering (China)

  • Mayasan Biotech (Turkey)


 
Recent Developments


In January 2021, DuPont launched NovaGARD® NR 100-G, antimicrobial preservatives containing nisin and rosemary, in the Middle East and Africa. This preservative is specially meant for processed meat manufacturers. 


 


Intended Audience


This report will be beneficial for every stakeholder of the nisin market such as :



  • Manufacturers of nisin

  • Food products Laboratories

  • R&D Institutes

  • Traders and distributors

  • Potential investors

  • End-user industries


 
Report Overview


This report from Market Research Future provides an in-depth analysis of the nisin market in terms of current value and future forecast. This report has also highlighted the problems and prospects of the given market. Moreover, the technological analysis section of the report will help in understanding the product and its market prospects.  Furthermore, this report contains a detailed analysis of different market segments for the current forecast period. This report has also identified the key players and the current developments in the nisin market. 



Report Scope:
Report Attribute/Metric Details
  Market Size

  • 2026: USD 560 Million
  • 2027: Significant Value
  •   CAGR   4.2% (2020-2027)
      Base Year   2019
      Forecast Period   2020-2027
      Historical Data   2018
      Forecast Units   Value (USD Million)
      Report Coverage   Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, and Trends
      Segments Covered   Form and Application
      Geographies Covered   North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW)
      Key Vendors   DSM (Netherlands), Galactic (Belgium), DuPont (US), Shandong Freda Biotechnology (China), Siveele B.V. (Netherlands), Cayman Chemicals (US), Chihon Biotechnology (China), Handary S.A. (Belgium), Zhejiang Silver-Elephant Bioengineering (China), Mayasan Biotech (Turkey)
      Key Market Opportunities   Rising awareness amongst consumers and manufacturers of food & beverages regarding the non-toxic properties of nisin over other natural preservatives
      Key Market Drivers

  • Increasing demand for packed and frozen food products
  • Rising awareness regarding the health hazards of consuming chemical preservatives
  • Increasing demand for clean label products
  • Hike in demand for nisin in beverages


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    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :

    The increasing demand for packaged, pre-processed, and frozen foods and effective preservatives is the major factor driving the growth of the Global nisin market.

    North America accounts for the largest share of the Global nisin market owing to the huge demand for packaged food items.

    Dairy and frozen desserts are the largest end-user of nisin as a preservative due to its effectiveness in preserving temperature-sensitive products.

    The major global companies playing a key role in the nisin market are : DSM (Netherlands),Galactic (Belgium),DuPont (US),Shandong Freda Biotechnology (China),Siveele B.V. (Netherlands),Cayman Chemicals (US),Chihon Biotechnology (China),Handary S.A. (Belgium),Zhejiang Silver-Elephant Bioengineering (China)● Mayasan Biotech (Turkey)