ENT Devices Market Research Report – Forecast till 2027

ENT Devices Market Research Report: By Product (Diagnostic (Endoscopes, Hearing Screening) & Surgical (Powered Surgical, Balloon Sinus Dilation, & others))), End User (Hospitals, Clinics, Ambulatory Settings, & others)- Forecast Till 2027

ID: MRFR/HC/5731-HCR | February 2021 | Region: Global | 90 pages

ENT Devices Market Scenario


ENT devices market is expected to grow significantly over the forecast period. It is projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.2% over the forecast period.


ENT conditions are now common in population and comprise up to 20% of adult and 40% of paediatric consults of a general practitioner. The most common ENT conditions are hearing loss, sinusitis, nasal polyps, vocal fold paralysis, muscle tension dysphonia,


Favourable reimbursement for ENT procedures and funding policies is one of the key factors driving the ENT devices market. For instance, medicare national average payment for Nasal/sinus endoscopy is USD 569, for Adenoidectomy is USD 940 and for Septoplasty or submucous resection is USD 940.


Various other factors such as high prevalence of chronic sinusitis, geriatric population, technological advancements, growing adoption of minimally invasive ENT procedures, and high demand for cosmetic ENT procedures are also expected to propel the growth of the market.


However, the high cost of CO2 lasers, and high cost of devices can hamper the market growth over the forecast period.


ENT Devices Market Segmentation


The ENT devices market is segmented based on product, end user, and region.


The Global market for ENT devices, by product is segmented into diagnostic devices, surgical devices, hearing aids, hearing implants, Co2 lasers, and image-guided surgery systems. The diagnostic devices segment is further classified as endoscopes and hearing screening devices. The endoscopes further segmented as rigid endoscopes and flexible endoscopes. The rigid endoscope segment includes otoscopes and sinuscopes. The flexible endoscope segment includes rhinoscopes, laryngoscopes, pharyngoscopes, and nasopharyngoscopes. The surgical devices segment is further classified as powered surgical instruments, radiofrequency (RF) handpieces, handheld instruments, balloon sinus dilation devices, ENT supplies, ear tubes, voice prosthesis devices. The handheld instrument segment includes rhinology instruments, otology instruments, laryngeal instruments, head and neck surgery instruments and others. The ENT supplies segment includes packing material, nasal stents & splints. 


Based on end user, the market is segmented into hospitals, ambulatory settings, ENT clinics, research and academic institutes, home care settings, and others.


In the current scope of the study, the above-mentioned segments are covered into the four global regions, namely the Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East & African region.


The ENT devices market in the Americas has further been segmented into North America and South America, with the North American market divided into the US and Canada.


The European ENT devices market has been segmented into Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Western Europe has been classified as Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain, and the rest of Western Europe.  The ENT devices market in Asia-Pacific has been segmented into Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, and the rest of Asia-Pacific. The ENT devices market in the Middle East & Africa has been segmented into the Middle East and Africa.


ENT Devices Market Regional Market Summary


Global ENT Devices market Share (%), by Region, 2017



Sources: MRFR Analysis


The Americas dominated the global market for ENT devices owing to the presence of major market players, increasing cases of hearing loss and developed economies like US and Canada within the region. As per the 2017 study published in The Hearing Journal, nearly 44 million U.S. adults over the age of 20 are expected to have hearing loss by 2020.


In 2017, it was estimated that Europe stood second in the ENT devices market. This can be attributed to the rising research and development investments and increasing technological advancements.


Asia Pacific was projected to be the fastest growing region in 2017. Increasing healthcare expenditure drives the regional markets of the Asia Pacific region. According to the data suggested by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia spent nearly USD 181 billion on health in 2016–2017.


On the other hand, the Middle East and Africa held least share in the ENT devices market due to the low per capita income, especially within the African region.


Key players


Some of the key players in the ENT devices market are Atos Medical AB, Cochlear Limited, Hoya Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg, Medtronic PLC, Olympus Corporation, Rion Co. Ltd, Siemens Healthcare, Smith & Nephew PLC, Sonova Holding AG, Starkey Laboratories Inc., Stryker Corporation, Widex A/S, William Demant Holding A/S, and others.


Research Methodology


Market Research Future research is conducted by industry experts who offer insights into industry structure, market segmentation, assessment, Competitive Landscape (CL), penetration, as well as on emerging trends. Besides primary interviews (~ 80%) and secondary research (~ 20%), their analysis is based on their years of professional expertise in respective industries. Our analysts also predict where the market will be headed in the next five to ten years, by analysing historical trends and current market positions. Furthermore, the varying trends of segments and categories geographically presented are studied and are estimated based on the primary and secondary research.



  • Primary Research


Extensive primary research was conducted to gain a deeper insight of the market and the industry performance. In this particular report we have conducted primary surveys (interviews) with key level executives (VPs, CEOs, Marketing Directors, Business Development Managers, and many more) of major players who are active in the market. In addition to analyzing the current and historical trends, our analysts predict where the market is headed, over the next five to ten years.



  • Secondary Research


Secondary research was mainly used to collect and identify information useful for extensive, technical, market-oriented, and commercial study of the ENT devices. It was also used to obtain key information about major players, market classification, and segmentation according to industry trends, geographical markets, and developments related to the market and perspectives. For this study, analysts have gathered information from various credible sources, such as annual reports, SEC filings, journals, white papers, corporate presentations, company web sites, international organization of chemical manufacturers, some paid databases, and many others.


Intended Audience



  • Medical Devices Companies

  • Government and Private Laboratories

  • Research and Development (R&D) companies

  • Medical Research Laboratories

  • Market Research and Consulting Service Providers


Market Segmentation and Key Market Players


ENT devices market, by Product



  • Diagnostic Devices


    • Endoscopes


      • Rigid Endoscopes


        • Otoscopes

        • Sinuscopes


      • Flexible Endoscopes


        • Rhinoscopes

        • Laryngoscopes

        • Pharyngoscopes

        • Nasopharyngoscopes


      • Hearing Screening Devices



  • Surgical Devices


    • Powered Surgical Instruments

    • Radiofrequency (RF) Handpieces

    • Handheld Instruments


      • Rhinology Instruments

      • Otology Instruments

      • Laryngeal Instruments

      • Head and Neck Surgery Instruments

      • Others


    • Balloon Sinus Dilation Devices

    • ENT Supplies


      • Packing Material

      • Nasal Stents & Splints


    • Ear Tubes

    • Voice Prosthesis Devices


  • Hearing Aids

  • Hearing Implants

  • Co2 Lasers

  • Image-Guided Surgery Systems


ENT devices market, by End User



  • Hospitals

  • Ambulatory Settings

  • ENT Clinics

  • Research and Academic Institutes

  • Home Care Settings

  • Others



Report Scope:
Report Attribute/Metric Details
  Market Size   2027: Significant Value
  CAGR   2018-2023: 6.2%
  Base Year   2019
  Forecast Period   2027
  Historical Data   2018
  Forecast Units   Value (USD Million)
  Report Coverage   Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, and Trends
  Segments Covered   Product, End user, and Region
  Geographies Covered   North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW)
  Key Vendors   Atos Medical AB, Cochlear Limited, Hoya Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg, Medtronic PLC, Olympus Corporation, Rion Co. Ltd, Siemens Healthcare, Smith & Nephew PLC, Sonova Holding AG, Starkey Laboratories Inc., Stryker Corporation, Widex A/S, William Demant Holding A/S, and others
  Key Market Opportunities   Increasing cases of hearing loss and Developed economies
  Key Market Drivers

  • Favourable reimbursement for ENT procedures
  • Funding policies


  • Speak to Analyst Ask for Customization

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :


    The outlook of the global ENT devices market looks very promising.

    The global ENT devices market is projected to grow at approximately 6.2% CAGR during forecast period (2018-2023).

    Favorable reimbursement for ENT procedures and funding policies.

    North America holds the largest share in the global ENT devices market followed by Europe and Asia Pacific, respectively.

    Cochlear Limited, Atos Medical AB, Hoya Corporation, Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Medtronic PLC, Rion Co. Ltd, Olympus Corporation, Siemens Healthcare, Sonova Holding AG, Smith & Nephew PLC, Starkey Laboratories Inc., Widex A/S, Stryker Corporation, and William Demant Holding A/S, are some of the major players operating in the ENT devices market.

    Table of Contents:

    Chapter 1. Report Prologue

    Chapter 2. Market Introduction

    2.1 Definition

    2.2 Scope of the Study

    2.2.1 Research Objective

    2.2.2 Assumptions

    2.2.3 Limitations

    Chapter 3. Research Methodology

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Primary Research

    3.3 Secondary Research

    3.4 Market Size Estimation

    Chapter 4. Market Dynamics

    4.1 Drivers

    4.2 Restraints

    4.3 Opportunities

    4.4 Macroeconomic Indicators

    4.5 Trends & Assessment

    Chapter 5. Market Factor Analysis

    5.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

    5.1.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers

    5.1.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers

    5.1.3 Threat of New Entrants

    5.1.4 Threat of Substitutes

    5.1.5 Intensity of Rivalry

    5.2 Value Chain Analysis

    Chapter 6. Global ENT Devices Market, by Product

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Diagnostic Devices

    6.2.1 Endoscopes

    6.2.1.1 Rigid Endoscopes

    6.2.1.1.1 Otoscopes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.2.1.1.2 Sinuscopes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.2.1.2 Flexible Endoscopes

    6.2.1.2.1 Rhinoscopes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.2.1.2.2 Laryngoscopes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.2.1.2.3 Pharyngoscopes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.2.1.2.4 Nasopharyngoscopes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.2.2 Hearing Screening Devices

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3 Surgical Devices

    6.3.1 Powered Surgical Instruments

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.2 Radiofrequency (RF) Handpieces

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.3 Handheld Instruments

    6.3.3.1 Rhinology Instruments

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.3.2 Otology Instruments

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.3.3 Laryngeal Instruments

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.3.4 Head and Neck Surgery Instruments

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.3.5 Others

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.4 Balloon Sinus Dilation Devices

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.5 ENT Supplies

    6.3.5.1 Packing Material

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.5.2 Nasal Stents & Splints

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.6 Ear Tubes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.3.7 Voice Prosthesis Devices

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.4 Hearing Aids

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.5 Hearing Implants

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.6 Co2 Lasers

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    6.7 Image-Guided Surgery Systems

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    Chapter 7. Global ENT Devices Market, by End User

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Hospitals

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    7.3 Ambulatory Settings

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    7.4 ENT Clinics

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    7.5 Research and Academic Institutes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    7.6 Home Care Settings

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    7.7 Others

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020-2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020-2027

    Chapter 8. Global ENT Devices Market, by Region

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Americas

    8.2.1 North America

    8.2.1.1 U.S.

    8.2.1.2 Canada

    8.2.2 South America

    8.3 Europe

    8.3.1 Western Europe

    8.3.1.1 Germany

    8.3.1.2 France

    8.3.1.3 Italy

    8.3.1.4 Spain

    8.3.1.5 UK

    8.3.1.6 Rest of Western Europe

    8.3.2 Eastern Europe

    8.4 Asia-Pacific

    8.4.1 Japan

    8.4.2 China

    8.4.3 India

    8.4.4 Australia

    8.4.5 South Korea

    8.4.6 Rest of Asia-Pacific

    8.5 Middle East & Africa

    8.5.1 Middle East

    8.5.2 Africa

    Chapter 9. Company Landscape

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Market Share Analysis

    9.3 Key Development & Strategies

    Chapter 10. Company Profiles

    10.1 Atos Medical AB

    10.1.1 Company Overview

    10.1.2 Product Overview

    10.1.3 Financials Overview

    10.1.4 Key Developments

    10.1.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.2 Cochlear Limited

    10.2.1 Company Overview

    10.2.2 Product Overview

    10.2.3 Financial Overview

    10.2.4 Key Developments

    10.2.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.3 Hoya Corporation

    10.3.1 Company Overview

    10.3.2 Product Overview

    10.3.3 Financial Overview

    10.3.4 Key Development

    10.3.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.4 Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.

    10.4.1 Company Overview

    10.4.2 Product Overview

    10.4.3 Financial Overview

    10.4.4 Key Development

    10.4.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.5 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg

    10.5.1 Company Overview

    10.5.2 Product Overview

    10.5.3 Financial overview

    10.5.4 Key Developments

    10.5.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.6 Medtronic PLC

    10.6.1 Company Overview

    10.6.2 Product Overview

    10.6.3 Financial Overview

    10.6.4 Key Developments

    10.6.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.7 Olympus Corporation

    10.7.1 Overview

    10.7.2 Product Overview

    10.7.3 Financial Overview

    10.7.4 Key Developments

    10.7.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.8 Rion Co. Ltd

    10.8.1 Overview

    10.8.2 Product Overview

    10.8.3 Financials

    10.8.4 Key Developments

    10.8.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.9 Siemens Healthcare

    10.9.1 Overview

    10.9.2 Product Overview

    10.9.3 Financials

    10.9.4 Key Developments

    10.9.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.10 Smith & Nephew PLC

    10.10.1 Overview

    10.10.2 Product Overview

    10.10.3 Financials

    10.10.4 Key Developments

    10.10.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.11 SONOVA HOLDING AG

    10.11.1 Overview

    10.11.2 Product Overview

    10.11.3 Financials

    10.11.4 Key Developments

    10.11.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.12 Starkey Laboratories Inc.

    10.12.1 Overview

    10.12.2 Product Overview

    10.12.3 Financials

    10.12.4 Key Developments

    10.12.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.13 Stryker Corporation

    10.13.1 Overview

    10.13.2 Product Overview

    10.13.3 Financials

    10.13.4 Key Developments

    10.13.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.14 Widex A/S

    10.14.1 Overview

    10.14.2 Product Overview

    10.14.3 Financials

    10.14.4 Key Developments

    10.14.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.15 William Demant Holding A/S

    10.15.1 Overview

    10.15.2 Product Overview

    10.15.3 Financials

    10.15.4 Key Developments

    10.15.5 SWOT Analysis

    10.16 Other

    Chapter 11 MRFR Conclusion

    11.1 Key Findings

    11.1.1 From CEO’s Viewpoint

    11.1.2 Unmet Needs of the Market

    11.2 Key Companies to Watch

    11.3 Predictionsfor the Global ENT Devices Market

    Chapter 12 Appendix

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1 ENT Devices Market Synopsis, 2020-2027

    Table 2 ENT Devices Market Estimates and Forecast, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 3 Global ENT Devices Market, by Region, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 4 Global ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 5 Global ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 6 North America: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 7 North America: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USDMillion)

    Table 8 US: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 9 US: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 10 Canada:ENT Devices Market,byProduct, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 11 Canada: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USDMillion)

    Table 12 South America: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 13 South America: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USDMillion)

    Table 14 Europe: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 15 Europe: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 16 Western Europe: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USDMillion)

    Table 17 Western Europe: ENT Devices Market, by End User, 2020-2027(USD Million)

    Table 18 Eastern Europe: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 19 Eastern Europe: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027(USD Million)

    Table 20 Asia-Pacific: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 21 Asia-Pacific: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 22 Middle East & Africa: ENT Devices Market, by Product, 2020-2027 (USD Million)

    Table 23 Middle East & Africa: ENT Devices Market, End User, 2020-2027(USD Million)

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1 Research Process

    Figure 2 Segmentation for Global ENT Devices Market

    Figure 3 Market Dynamics for Global ENT Devices Market

    Figure 4 ENT Devices Market Share, by Product,2020

    Figure 5 ENT Devices Market Share, End User, 2020

    Figure 6 ENT Devices Market Share, by Region, 2020

    Figure 7 North America: ENT Devices Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 8 Europe: ENT Devices Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 9 Asia-Pacific: ENT Devices Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 10 Middle East & Africa: ENT Devices Market Share, by Region, 2020

    Figure 11 ENT Devices Market: Company Share Analysis, 2020 (%)

    Figure 12 Atos Medical AB: Key Financials

    Figure 13 Atos Medical AB: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 14 Atos Medical AB: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 15 Cochlear Limited : Key Financials

    Figure 16 Cochlear Limited : Segmental Revenue

    Figure 17 Cochlear Limited : Geographical Revenue

    Figure 18 Hoya Corporation: Key Financials

    Figure 19 Hoya Corporation: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 20 Hoya Corporation: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 21 Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.: Key Financials

    Figure 22 Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 23 Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 24 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg: Key Financials

    Figure 25 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 26 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 27 Medtronic PLC: Key Financials

    Figure 28 Medtronic PLC: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 29 Medtronic PLC: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 30 Olympus Corporation: Key Financials

    Figure 31 Olympus Corporation: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 32 Olympus Corporation: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 33 Rion Co. Ltd: Key Financials

    Figure 34 Rion Co. Ltd: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 35 Rion Co. Ltd: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 36 Siemens Healthcare: Key Financials

    Figure 37 Siemens Healthcare: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 38 Siemens Healthcare: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 39 Smith & Nephew PLC: Key Financials

    Figure 40 Smith & Nephew PLC: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 41 Smith & Nephew PLC: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 42 SONOVA HOLDING AG : Key Financials

    Figure 43 SONOVA HOLDING AG :Segmental Revenue

    Figure 44 SONOVA HOLDING AG : Geographical Revenue

    Figure 45 Starkey Laboratories Inc.: Key Financials

    Figure 46 Starkey Laboratories Inc.: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 47 Starkey Laboratories Inc.: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 48 Stryker Corporation: Key Financials

    Figure 49 Stryker Corporation: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 50 Stryker Corporation: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 51 Widex A/S: Key Financials

    Figure 52 Widex A/S: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 53 Widex A/S: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 54 William Demant Holding A/S: Key Financials

    Figure 55 William Demant Holding A/S: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 56 William Demant Holding A/S: Geographical Revenue



    This table of content is tentative and subject to change as the research progresses.

    Please Note:  Financial details of company cannot be provided if the information of the company is not available in public domain and or reliable source.