Industrial Batteries Market Research Report - Forecast to 2030

Industrial Batteries Market Information: By Type (Lead-Acid, Nickel-Based, Lithium-Based, And Others), By Application (Telecommunication, Power Storages, Industrial Equipment, Electric Grid Storage, And Others) And Region- Forecast till 2030

ID: MRFR/CnM/1100-HCR | February 2021 | Region: Global | 187 pages

Industrial Batteries Market Overview


In 2020, the industrial batteries market value is registered as USD 18 billion and is expected to exhibit a significant growth of 7.1% CAGR with industrial market size of USD 31.8 billion during the forecast period (2021-2028).


Industrial batteries are electrochemical devices that are capable of high-energy power sources, and rechargeable. During discharge, these batteries convert high-energy active materials. These batteries are used to power various end-use applications like grid storage and uninterrupted power supply systems. These batteries are used in light vehicles, backup systems for telecommunication and data storage sectors.


The advantage of industrial batteries is not emitting hazardous acids like sulphuric acid. These are more sustainable towards other batteries and reduces carbon emissions. For its eco-friendly nature, it increases the demand in the coming years.


COVID-19 Analysis:


Due to the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 and restrictions on trade and commerce, the industrial battery market is slightly declined for some time. The maximum supply chain of the industrial battery is connected with China which leads to negative production and sales in the first two quarters of the pandemic situation. Moreover, the purchasing power of people related to the fastest-growing economies is also negatively impacting the market.


On the other hand, the usage of electrical products is increased in this pandemic situation by most of the companies implemented work from home and it requires electrical devices and batteries. Hence the demand for electrical devices and industrial batteries is propelled. This pandemic situation saw a rise in consumer awareness regarding eco-friendly products. However, most of the countries are switching to electric vehicles which boosts the growth of the market. By these factors, we can say that the industrial batteries market is benefited from this pandemic situation.


Market Dynamics:


Drivers:


Growing electrification in most of the industrial, commercial, and household works is driving the growth of the market. The rapid expansion of the telecommunication sector is boosting the demand for high storage capacity backup batteries. Industrial batteries are the primary source of power for a few applications like automated machinery, robots, and light vehicles which propels the growth of the market. Implementation of government regulation towards carbon emission is projected to rise the demand for lithium-ion batteries and hence increases the demand for the industrial batteries market.


Due to the increasing dependency on electrical gadgets, the demand for uninterrupted electrical energy is accelerated. Additionally, the emerging economies are highly preferring electrification and increasing urbanization is majorly influencing the demand for the global market.  Uncertainty in raw material prices and availability of raw materials like lead, lithium, cobalt is bolstered the market growth.


Restraint:


The cost of lithium-ion or lithium-ion batteries is very expensive. Even though it is the fastest-growing segment, the price of the battery is limiting the market growth. According to the report of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), by 2020, the price of lithium-ion batteries is USD 125/kWh and is expected to decline the price by USD 73kWh by 2030.


Opportunities:


To control pollution, most countries are implementing stringent norms for avoiding toxic chemicals and make nature eco-friendly by switching to electric vehicles. Hence by increasing the demand for electric vehicles leads to a rise in demand for the industrial batteries market. The advanced technologies in industrial batteries by end-users and manufacturers are creating an opportunity to rise the growth of the global market.


Challenges:


The toxic organic chemicals are used during the production of industrial batteries. Most of the countries are implementing strict regulations regarding such chemicals which restricts the growth of the industrial batteries market. This factor is acting as a challenging factor for the industrial batteries market.


Study Objectives -



  • To provide detailed information about the industrial batteries market structure along with various forecast segments and sub-segments for the next 10 years.

  • To provide the factors that are affecting the growth of the industrial batteries market value.

  • To analyze the industrial batteries market industry analysis based on porter’s five force analysis, factors-price analysis, supply chain analysis, etc.

  • To provide history and forecast revenue segments and sub-segments of the industrial batteries market revenue for the main geographies.

  • To provide the country-level analysis of the current industrial batteries market size and future prospective.

  • To provide country-level analysis of the industrial batteries market industry growth by region, form, and application.

  • To provide a strategic profile of the prominent key players in the market, analyze their core competencies, and draw a global industrial batteries market growth landscape.

  • To track and analyze new product developments, strategic alliances, and global industrial batteries market research.


Segment Overview:


The global industrial batteries market has been divided into segments based on type, application, and region.


Based on Type


The global industrial batteries market based on the type is classified into few types such as lead-acid-based, nickel-based, and lithium-based & others. Out of these types, lead-acid batteries hold a maximum share of about 48% in the next years due to their low manufacturing cost, longer shelf-life, and high electrical processing capacity. Moreover, lithium-based batteries are considered to be the fastest-growing segment for their excellent properties like longer shelf life, lightweight & less volume, recyclability, etc. Apart, these batteries require less maintenance and have a high capacity volume ratio 


Based on Application


By application, the global industrial batteries market is categorized into few types as telecommunication, power storages, industrial equipment, electric grid storage, and others. During the forecast period, the telecommunication segment is predicted to grow at a significant growth due to proliferating IT companies, the telecommunication sector is growing at a rapid expansion in developing countries.


Based on Region


Region-wise, globally, the industrial batteries market is divided into five main geographies such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. Among them, Asia-Pacific held a major industrial batteries market share due to the presence of the four main countries like India, Japan, China, and South Korea which are the major key players in this region.


Regional Analysis -


Geographically, the industrial batteries market is analyzed into four major regions like North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa. Out of these regions, Asia-Pacific is accounting for the largest market share due to the presence of four emerging countries like Japan, India, China, and South Korea who are the major key players in the region. Rapid industrialization and development of the IT sector are boosting the huge demands in this region. North America is holding the second largest market share due to demand for industrial batteries by the automobile industry, electric grid storage, and the IT sector.


During the forecast period, Europe is holding moderate growth due to the growing expenditure on innovation and developmental works. The presence of automobile manufacturers in Germany is expected to surge the demand in this region. Owing to the requirements of the oil & gas production units, the industrial batteries market is also accelerating in the Middle East & Africa region. Due to industrialization and developmental works, Latin America is also projected to witness huge demand for the industrial batteries market.


Competitive Landscape


The prominent key players in the industrial batteries market outlook are the following:



  • Exide Technologies Inc. (India)

  • Johnson Controls Inc. (U.S.)

  • Enersys Inc. (U.S.)

  • Saft Groupe S.A. (France)

  • GS Yuasa Corporation (Japan)

  • Northstar Battery Company LLC (Sweden)

  • C & D Technologies, Inc. (U.S.)

  • Toshiba International Corporation (Japan)

  • Robert Bosch GmbH (Germany)

  • East Penn Manufacturing Company (U.S.)


Recent Developments



  • In December 2020, a subsidiary of Saft, TOTAL introduced an innovation of batteries in India.

  • The manufacturer of the Industrial battery inverted Energy launched a new li-ion battery plant in Okhla.


Report Overview:


This global industrial batteries market research includes the Market Overview, COVID-19 analysis, Market Dynamics, Study Objectives, Segment Overview, Regional Analysis, Competitive Landscape, Recent developments, Segmentation Table, and FAQs. The market scenario includes the industrial batteries market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities. The industrial batteries market forecast segments are type, application, and region.


Segmentation Table


The industrial batteries market trends have been segmented globally based on the type, application, and region.


By Type


Lead-acid-based, nickel-based, lithium-based & others.


By Application


Telecommunication, power storages, industrial equipment, electric grid storage, and others are the few applications.


By Region


Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, and the rest of the world are the four main geographies included in the industrial batteries market.



Report Scope:
Report Attribute/Metric Details
  Market Size

  • 2028: USD 31.24 Billion
  • 2030: Significant value
  •   CAGR   7.1% (2022 to 2030)
      Base Year   2021
      Forecast Period   2022 to 2030
      Historical Data   2019 & 2020
      Forecast Units   Value (USD Billion)
      Report Coverage   Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, and Trends
      Segments Covered   By Type, By Application and Region
      Geographies Covered   North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW)
      Key Vendors   Johnson Controls Inc. (U.S.), Exide Technologies Inc. (India), Enersys Inc. (U.S.), Saft Groupe S.A. (France), GS Yuasa Corporation (Japan), Northstar Battery Company LLC (Sweden), C&D Technologies, Inc. (U.S.), Robert Bosch GmbH (Germany), East Penn Manufacturing Company (U.S.), and Toshiba International Corporation (Japan)
      Key Market Opportunities

  • Energy density
  • Power density
  • Stability or cyclability
  • Prices
  • Safety
  •   Key Market Drivers

  • Rapid industrialization
  • Rising demand for high capacity power storages
  • Increasing expenditure on research activities


  • Speak to Analyst Ask for Customization

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :


    Exide Technologies Inc. (India), Johnson Controls Inc. (U.S.), Saft Groupe S.A. (France), Enersys Inc. (U.S.), Northstar Battery Company LLC (Sweden), GS Yuasa Corporation (Japan), Robert Bosch GmbH (Germany), East Penn Manufacturing Company (U.S.), C&D Technologies, Inc. (U.S.), and Toshiba International Corporation (Japan) are expected to play prominent roles in the industrial batteries market.

    Industries like industrial equipment, power storages, telecommunication, and electric grid storage are going to take the industrial batteries market forward.

    The Asia Pacific industrial batteries market to register the fastest CAGR between 2020 and 2027 (forecast period as mentioned by MRFR).

    Rising need for uninterrupted electric energy supply to inspire growth for the industrial batteries market growth.

    Strict regulations regarding the use of toxic chemicals can hamper the industrial batteries market growth.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1 Executive Summary

    2 Scope of the Report

    2.1 Market Definition

    2.2 Scope of the Study

    2.2.1 Research Objectives

    2.2.2 Assumptions & Limitations

    2.3 Markets Structure

    3 Market Research Methodology

    3.1 Research Process

    3.2 Secondary Research

    3.3 Primary Research

    3.4 Forecast Model

    4 Market Landscape

    4.1 Five Forces Analysis

    4.1.1 Threat of New Entrants

    4.1.2 Bargaining power of buyers

    4.1.3 Threat of substitutes

    4.1.4 Segment rivalry

    4.2 Value Chain/Supply Chain of Global Industrial Batteries Market

    5 Industry Overview of Global Industrial Batteries Market

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Growth Drivers

    5.3 Impact analysis

    5.4 Market Challenges

    6 Market Trends

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Growth Trends

    6.3 Impact analysis

    7. Global Industrial Batteries Market by Type

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Lead-Acid

    7.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    7.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    7.3 Nickel-Based

    7.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    7.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    7.4 Lithium-Based

    7.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    7.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    7.5 Others

    7.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    7.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    8. Global Industrial Batteries Market by Application

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Telecommunication

    8.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    8.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    8.3 Power Storages

    8.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    8.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    8.4 Industrial Equipment

    8.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    8.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    8.5 Electric Grid Storage

    8.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    8.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    8.6 Others

    8.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    8.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2020-2027

    9. Global Industrial Batteries Market by Region

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 North America

    9.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.2.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.2.4 US

    9.2.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.2.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.2.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.2.5 Canada

    9.2.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.2.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.2.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3 Europe

    9.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.4 Germany

    9.3.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.5. France

    9.3.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.6 Italy

    9.3.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.7 Spain

    9.3.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.8 UK

    9.3.8.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.8.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.8.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.9 Russia

    9.3.9.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.9.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.9.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.3.10 Poland

    9.3.10.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.3.10.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.3.10.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4 Asia Pacific

    9.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4.4 China

    9.4.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4.5 India

    9.4.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4.6 Japan

    9.4.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4.7 Australia

    9.4.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4.8 New Zealand

    9.4.8.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.8.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.8.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.4.9 Rest of Asia Pacific

    9.4.9.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.4.9.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.4.9.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.5 Middle East & Africa

    9.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.5.4 Turkey

    9.5.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.5.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.5.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.5.5 Israel

    9.5.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.5.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.5.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.5.6 North Africa

    9.5.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.5.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.5.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.5.7 GCC

    9.5.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.5.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.5.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.5.8 Rest of Middle East & Africa

    9.5.8.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.5.8.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.5.8.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.6 Latin America

    9.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.6.4 Brazil

    9.6.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.6.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.6.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.6.5 Argentina

    9.6.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.6.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.6.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.6.6 Mexico

    9.6.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.6.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.6.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    9.6.7 Rest of Latin America

    9.6.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020-2027

    9.6.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Type, 2020-2027

    9.6.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Application, 2020-2027

    10. Company Landscape

    11. Company Profiles

    11.1 Johnson Controls Inc.

    11.1.1 Company Overview

    11.1.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.1.3 Financial Updates

    11.1.4 Key Developments

    11.2 Exide Technologies Inc.

    11.2.1 Company Overview

    11.2.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.2.3 Financial Updates

    11.2.4 Key Developments

    11.3 Enersys Inc.

    11.3.1 Company Overview

    11.3.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.3.3 Financial Updates

    11.3.4 Key Developments

    11.4 Saft Groupe S.A.

    11.4.1 Company Overview

    11.4.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.4.3 Financial Updates

    11.4.4 Key Developments

    11.5 GS Yuasa Corporation

    11.5.1 Company Overview

    11.5.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.5.3 Financial Updates

    11.5.4 Key Developments

    11.6 Northstar Battery Company LLC

    11.6.1 Company Overview

    11.6.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.6.3 Financial Updates

    11.6.4 Key Developments

    11.7 C&D Technologies, Inc.

    11.7.1 Company Overview

    11.7.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.7.3 Financial Updates

    11.7.4 Key Developments

    11.8 Robert Bosch GmbH

    11.8.1 Company Overview

    11.8.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.8.3 Financial Updates

    11.8.4 Key Developments

    11.9 East Penn Manufacturing Company

    11.9.1 Company Overview

    11.9.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.9.3 Financial Updates

    11.9.4 Key Developments

    11.10 Toshiba International Corporation

    11.10.1 Company Overview

    11.10.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    11.10.3 Financial Updates

    11.10.4 Key Developments

    12. Conclusion

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1 World Population by Major Regions (2020 To 2030)

    Table 2 Global Industrial Batteries Market: By Region, 2020-2027

    Table 3 North America Industrial Batteries Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table 4 Europe Industrial Batteries Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table 5 Asia-Pacific Industrial Batteries Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table 7 Middle East & Africa Industrial Batteries Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table 6 Latin America Industrial Batteries Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table 8 Global Industrial Batteries by Types Market: By Regions, 2020-2027

    Table 9 North America Industrial Batteries by Types Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table 10 Europe Industrial Batteries by Types Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table11 Asia-Pacific Industrial Batteries by Types Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table13 Middle East & Africa Industrial Batteries by Types Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table12 Latin America Industrial Batteries by Types Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table14 North America Industrial Batteries for Application Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table13 Europe Industrial Batteries for Application Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table14 Asia-Pacific Industrial Batteries for Application Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table16 Middle East & Africa Industrial Batteries for Application Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table15 Latin America Industrial Batteries for Application Market: By Country, 2020-2027

    Table23 Global Types Market: By Region, 2020-2027

    Table24 Global Application Market: By Region, 2020-2027

    Table25 North America Industrial Batteries Market, By Country

    Table26 North America Industrial Batteries Market, By Types

    Table27 North America Industrial Batteries Market, By Application

    Table28 Europe: Industrial Batteries Market, By Country

    Table29 Europe: Industrial Batteries Market, By Types

    Table30 Europe: Industrial Batteries Market, By Application

    Table31 Asia-Pacific: Industrial Batteries Market, By Country

    Table32 Asia-Pacific: Industrial Batteries Market, By Types

    Table33 Asia-Pacific: Industrial Batteries Market, By Application

    Table36 Middle East & Africa: Industrial Batteries Market, By Country

    Table37 Middle East & Africa Industrial Batteries Market, By Types

    Table33 Middle East & Africa: Industrial Batteries Market, By Application

    Table34 Latin America: Industrial Batteries Market, By Country

    Table35 Latin America Industrial Batteries Market, By Types

    Table33 Latin America: Industrial Batteries Market, By Application

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE 1 Global Industrial Batteries Market segmentation

    FIGURE 2 Forecast Methodology

    FIGURE 3 Five Forces Analysis of Global Industrial Batteries Market

    FIGURE 4 Value Chain of Global Industrial Batteries Market

    FIGURE 5 Share of Global Industrial Batteries Market in 2020, by country (in %)

    FIGURE 6 Global Industrial Batteries Market, 2020-2027,

    FIGURE 7 Sub segments of Type

    FIGURE 8 Global Industrial Batteries Market size by Type, 2020

    FIGURE 9 Share of Global Industrial Batteries Market by Type, 2020 to 2027

    FIGURE 10 Sub segments of Application

    FIGURE 11 Global Industrial Batteries Market size by Application, 2020

    FIGURE 12 Share of Global Industrial Batteries Market by Application, 2020 to 2027