Urinary Catheters Market Research Report – Global Forecast till 2027

Urinary Catheters Market Report: Information  by Product (Intermittent Catheters & Indwelling Catheters), Type (Coated Catheters & Uncoated Catheters), Gender (Male Urinary Catheters), Indication (General Surgery), &End User — Global Forecast till 2027

ID: MRFR/HC/6131-HCR | February 2021 | Region: Global | 90 pages

Please note that the assessment period of report has been updated from 2018-2023 to 2020-2027. Cordially fill the sample form for updated data.

Market Scenario


The global urinary catheters market is expected to grow significantly over the forecast period. The market held a market value of USD 1,603 million in 2017 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 7.8% over the forecast period.


Numerous factors such as increasing prevalence of various urologic diseases, increasing cases of hospitalization, increasing long term use of urinary catheters by the aged population for the growth of the market during the forecast period.


Moreover, rising incidents of kidney and other renal diseases offer a lot of benefits which positively affects the market growth. According to the National Kidney Foundation, one in five women may suffer from urinary tract infections at list once in a lifetime. In 2015, it was estimated that 150 million urinary tract infection occurs yearly on a global basis. Prevalence of urinary tract diseases is more in females than males, 40% to 50% of whom will suffer at least one clinical episode during their lifetime. Besides this increasing prevalence of bladder cancer is also has a synergistic impact on the growth of the market.


On the other hand, the limited availability of alternative options across developing economies may hamper the growth of the market.


Segmentation


The global urinary catheters market has been segmented into type, product, gender, indication, and end user. 


By type, the market has been segmented into coated catheters and uncoated catheters.


Based on product, the market has been segmented into Intermittent catheters, indwelling catheters, and external catheters.


The market, by gender, has been segmented into male urinary catheters and female urinary catheters.


The market, by indication, has been segmented into benign prostatic hyperplasia, spinal cord injuries,


urinary incontinence, and general surgery.


The market, by end user, has been segmented into hospitals & clinics, research organization & academic institutes, and others.


The global urinary catheters market has been segmented, by region, into the Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa. The urinary catheters market in the Americas has further been segmented into North America and South America, with the North American market divided into the US and Canada.        


The European urinary catheters market has been segmented into Western Europe and Eastern Europe. The Western Europe urinary catheters market has further been classified as Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain, and the rest of Western Europe.         


The urinary catheters market in Asia-Pacific has been segmented into Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, and the rest of Asia-Pacific. The urinary catheters market in the Middle East & Africa has been segmented into the Middle East and Africa.       


Regional Market Summary


Global Urinary Catheters Share (%), by Region, 2017


Urinary Catheters Market


Source: White Papers, Company Presentations, Annual Reports


Geographically, the Americas is anticipated to dominate the global urinary catheters market owing to the high domestic income, and presence of major market players. The rising number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections is a major factor driving the growth of the urinary catheters market. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the risk of bacteriuria is ~5% per day, and 40% of nosocomial infections occur due to catheters. Indwelling catheters should be removed as soon as to avoid the risk of CA-bacteriuria (A-I) and CA-UTI (A-II). 


Europe is expected to hold the second largest position in the global urinary catheters market. The market growth in this region is attributed to the presence of strong academic & research base and availability of funding for research in the European countries. For instance, the European Research Council (ERC) provides grants for technological and scientific research conducted within the European Union (EU).  


The urinary catheters market in Asia-Pacific region consists of countries namely China, Japan, Republic of Korea, India, Australia and Rest of Asia-Pacific. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be the fastest growing region owing to increasing patient population and increasing focus of major market players in the region.  


The Middle East & Africa has the lowest share of the global urinary catheters market. Majority of the market of the region is anticipated to be held by the Middle East region owing to the growing government initiatives for the healthcare sector. 


Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Type



  • Coated Catheters

  • Uncoated Catheters      


Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Product



  • Intermittent Catheters

  • Indwelling Catheters

  • External Catheters        


Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender



  • Male Urinary Catheters

  • Female Urinary Catheters         


Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication



  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

  • Spinal Cord Injuries

  • Urinary Incontinence

  • General Surgery


Global Urinary Catheters Market, by End User



  • Hospitals & Clinics

  • Research organization & Academic Institutes

  • Others


Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Region



  • Americas

    • North America

      • US

      • Canada



    • Latin America



  • Europe

    • Western Europe

      • Germany

      • France

      • Italy

      • Spain

      • UK

      • Rest of Western Europe



    • Eastern Europe



  • Asia-Pacific

    • Japan

    • China

    • India

    • Australia

    • South Korea

    • Rest of Asia-Pacific



  • Middle East & Africa

    • Middle East

    • Africa




Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Key Players

  • Boston Scientific Corporation

  • Coloplast A/S

  • Convatec Group PLC

  • Werkomed Pty Ltd

  • Braun Melsungen AG

  • DISA Vascular

  • Medloyd Healthcare

  • Terumo Europe NV

  • Teleflex

  • Medtronic

  • R. Bard, Inc.

  • Wellspect Healthcare (A Subsidiary of Dentsply IH Ltd.)

  • Bactiguard Holding

  • Cook Medical

  • Hollister Incorporated

  • Rochester Medical Corporation

  • Others


Intended Audience



  • Urinary Catheters Manufacturers and Distributors

  • Contract Research Organizations

  • Academic and Research Institutes

  • Government Associations



Report Scope:
Report Attribute/Metric Details
  Market Size   USD 1,603 million
  CAGR   2018-2023: 7.8%
  Base Year   2019
  Forecast Period   2027
  Historical Data   2018
  Forecast Units   Value (USD Million)
  Report Coverage   Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, and Trends
  Segments Covered   Type, Product, Gender, Indication and End User
  Geographies Covered   North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW)
  Key Vendors   Werkomed Pty Ltd, Coloplast A/S, DISA Vascular, Terumo Europe NV, Medloyd Healthcare, Medtronic, and Teleflex
  Key Market Opportunities   Government incentives and healthcare expenditure
  Key Market Drivers

  • Increasing prevalence of various urologic diseases
  • Increasing cases of hospitalization
  • Increasing long term use of urinary catheters by the aged population


  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :


    The Middle East and Africa Urinary Catheters Market is projected grow at approximately 6.9% CAGR during the assessment period (2016-2022).

    The valuation of the Middle East and Africa Urinary Catheters Market is estimated to increase to USD 352.9 MN by the end of 2022.

    Rising rate of self-catheterization among geriatric population and growing numbers of hospitalizations for surgeries are the major tailwinds pushing the growth of the Middle East and Africa Urinary Catheters Market.

    The Middle East and Africa Urinary Catheters Market has multiple restrictions on its growth course due to the embarrassment and stigma associated with the use of urinary catheters and catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)

    Werkomed Pty Ltd, Coloplast A/S, DISA Vascular, Terumo Europe NV, Medloyd Healthcare, Medtronic, and Teleflex, are some of the major players operating in the urinary catheters market.

    Table of Contents:

    Chapter 1. Report Prologue

    Chapter 2. Market Introduction

    2.1 Definition

    2.2 Scope of the Study

    2.2.1 Research Objective

    2.2.2 Assumptions

    2.2.3 Limitations

    Chapter 3. Research Methodology

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Primary Research

    3.3 Secondary Research

    3.4 Market Size Estimation

    Chapter 4. Market Dynamics

    4.1 Drivers

    4.2 Restraints

    4.3 Opportunities

    4.4 Challenges

    4.5 Macroeconomic Indicators

    4.6 Technological Trends & Assessment

    Chapter 5. Market Factor Analysis

    5.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

    5.1.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers

    5.1.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers

    5.1.3 Threat of New Entrants

    5.1.4 Threat of Substitutes

    5.1.5 Intensity of Rivalry

    5.2 Value Chain Analysis

    5.3 Investment Feasibility Analysis

    5.4 Pricing Analysis

    Chapter 6. Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Type

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Coated Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    6.3 Uncoated Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    Chapter 7. Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Product

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Intermittent Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    7.3 Indwelling Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    7.4 External Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    Chapter 8. Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Male Urinary Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    8.3 Female Urinary Catheters

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    Chapter 9. Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    9.3 Spinal Cord Injuries

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    9.4 Urinary Incontinence

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    9.5 General Surgery

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    Chapter 10. Global Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Hospitals & Clinics

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    10.3 Research Organization & Academic Institutes

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    10.4 Others

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

    Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

    Chapter 11. Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Region

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Americas

    11.2.1 North America

    11.2.1.1 US

    11.2.1.2 Canada

    11.2.2 Latin America

    11.3 Europe

    11.3.1 Western Europe

    11.3.1.1 Germany

    11.3.1.2 France

    11.3.1.3 Italy

    11.3.1.4 Spain

    11.3.1.5 UK

    11.3.1.6 Rest of Western Europe

    11.3.2 Eastern Europe

    11.4 Asia-Pacific

    11.4.1 Japan

    11.4.2 China

    11.4.3 India

    11.4.4 Australia

    11.4.5 South Korea

    11.4.6 Rest of Asia-Pacific

    11.5 Middle East & Africa

    11.5.1 Middle East

    11.5.2 Africa

    Chapter 12. Company Landscape

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Market Share Analysis

    12.3 Key Development & Strategies

    Chapter 13. Company Profiles

    13.1 Boston Scientific Corporation

    13.1.1 Company Overview

    13.1.2 Product Overview

    13.1.3 Financials Overview

    13.1.4 Key Developments

    13.1.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.2 Coloplast A/S

    13.2.1 Company Overview

    13.2.2 Product Overview

    13.2.3 Financial Overview

    13.2.4 Key Developments

    13.2.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.3 Convatec Group PLC

    13.3.1 Company Overview

    13.3.2 Product Overview

    13.3.3 Financial Overview

    13.3.4 Key Development

    13.3.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.4 Werkomed Pty Ltd

    13.4.1 Company Overview

    13.4.2 Business Segment Overview

    13.4.3 Financial Overview

    13.4.4 Key Development

    13.4.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.5 B. Braun Melsungen AG

    13.5.1 Company Overview

    13.5.2 Product Overview

    13.5.3 Financial overview

    13.5.4 Key Developments

    13.5.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.6 DISA Vascular

    13.6.1 Company Overview

    13.6.2 Product Overview

    13.6.3 Financial Overview

    13.6.4 Key Developments

    13.6.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.7 Medloyd Healthcare

    13.7.1 Overview

    13.7.2 Product Overview

    13.7.3 Financial Overview

    13.7.4 Key Developments

    13.7.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.8 Terumo Europe NV

    13.8.1 Overview

    13.8.2 Product Overview

    13.8.3 Financials

    13.8.4 Key Developments

    13.8.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.9 Teleflex

    13.9.1 Overview

    13.9.2 Product Overview

    13.9.3 Financials

    13.9.4 Key Developments

    13.9.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.10 Medtronic

    13.10.1 Overview

    13.10.2 Product Overview

    13.10.3 Financials

    13.10.4 Key Developments

    13.10.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.11 C.R. Bard, Inc.

    13.11.1 Overview

    13.11.2 Product Overview

    13.11.3 Financials

    13.11.4 Key Developments

    13.11.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.12 Bactiguard Holding

    13.12.1 Overview

    13.12.2 Product Overview

    13.12.3 Financials

    13.12.4 Key Developments

    13.12.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.13 Renishaw Plc

    13.13.1 Overview

    13.13.2 Product Overview

    13.13.3 Financials

    13.13.4 Key Developments

    13.13.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.14 Cook Medical

    13.14.1 Overview

    13.14.2 Product Overview

    13.14.3 Financials

    13.14.4 Key Developments

    13.14.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.15 Hollister Incorporated

    13.15.1 Overview

    13.15.2 Product Overview

    13.15.3 Financials

    13.15.4 Key Developments

    13.15.5 SWOT Analysis

    13.16 Others

    Chapter 14 MRFR Conclusion

    14.1 Key Findings

    14.1.1 From CEO’s Viewpoint

    14.1.2 Unmet Needs of the Market

    14.2 Key Companies to Watch

    Chapter 15. Appendix


    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1 Global Urinary Catheters Market Synopsis, 2020–2027

    Table 2 Global Urinary Catheters Market Estimates and Forecast, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 3 Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Region, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 4 Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 5 Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 6 Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 7 Global Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 8 Global Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 9 North America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027(USD Million)

    Table 10 North America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 11 North America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 12 North America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 13 North America: Urinary Catheters Market End-Users, by, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 14 US: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 15 US: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 16 US: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 17 US: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 18 US: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 19 Canada: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 20 Canada: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 21 Canada: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD

    Million)

    Table 22 Canada: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 23 Canada: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 24 South America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 25 South America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 26 South America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 27 South America: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 28 South America: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 29 Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 30 Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 31 Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 32 Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 33 Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 34 Western Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027(USD Million)

    Table 35 Western Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 36 Western Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 37 Western Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 38 Western Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 39 Eastern Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 40 Eastern Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    Table 41 Eastern Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 42 Eastern Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 43 Eastern Europe: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 44 Asia-Pacific: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027 (USD

    Million)

    Table 45 Asia-Pacific: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027 (USD

    Million)

    Table 46 Asia-Pacific: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027 (USD

    Million)

    Table 47 Asia-Pacific: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027 (USD

    Million)

    Table 48 Asia-Pacific: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-Users, 2020–2027 (USD

    Million)

    Table 49 Middle East & Africa: Urinary Catheters Market, by Types, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 50 Middle East & Africa: Urinary Catheters Market, by Product, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 51 Middle East & Africa: Urinary Catheters Market, by Gender, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 52 Middle East & Africa: Urinary Catheters Market, by Indication, 2020–2027

    (USD Million)

    Table 53 Middle East & Africa: Urinary Catheters Market, by End-User, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1 Research Process

    Figure 2 Segmentation for Global Urinary Catheters Market

    Figure 3 Segmentation Market Dynamics for Global Urinary Catheters Market

    Figure 4 Global Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Types, 2020

    Figure 5 Global Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Product, 2020

    Figure 6 Global Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Gender, 2020

    Figure 7 Global Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Indication, 2020

    Figure 8 Global Urinary Catheters Market Share, by End-Users, 2020

    Figure 9 Global Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Region, 2020

    Figure 10 North America: Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 11 Europe: Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 12 Asia-Pacific: Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 13 Middle East & Africa: Urinary Catheters Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 14 Global Urinary Catheters Market: Company Share Analysis, 2020 (%)

    Figure 15 Boston Scientific Corporation: Key Financials

    Figure 16 Boston Scientific Corporation: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 17 Boston Scientific Corporation: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 18 Coloplast A/S: Key Financials

    Figure 19 Coloplast A/S: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 20 Coloplast A/S: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 21 Convatec Group PLC: Key Financials

    Figure 22 Convatec Group PLC: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 23 Convatec Group PLC: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 24 Werkomed Pty Ltd: Key Financials

    Figure 25 Werkomed Pty Ltd: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 26 Werkomed Pty Ltd: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 27 B. Braun Melsungen AG: Key Financials

    Figure 28 B. Braun Melsungen AG: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 29 B. Braun Melsungen AG: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 30 DISA Vascular: Key Financials

    Figure 31 DISA Vascular: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 32 DISA Vascular: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 33 Asahi Kasei Corporation: Key Financials

    Figure 34 Asahi Kasei Corporation: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 35 Asahi Kasei Corporation: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 36 Nikkiso Co. Ltd: Key Financials

    Figure 37 Nikkiso Co. Ltd: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 38 Nikkiso Co. Ltd: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 39 Medloyd Healthcare: Key Financials

    Figure 40 Medloyd Healthcare: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 41 Medloyd Healthcare: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 42 Terumo Europe NV: Key Financials

    Figure 43 Terumo Europe NV: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 44 Terumo Europe NV: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 45 Bio3D Technologies: Key Financials

    Figure 46 Bio3D Technologies: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 47 Bio3D Technologies: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 48 Medtronic: Key Financials

    Figure 49 Medtronic : Segmental Revenue

    Figure 50 Medtronic : Geographical Revenue

    Figure 51 C.R. Bard, Inc.: Key Financials

    Figure 52 C.R. Bard, Inc.: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 53 C.R. Bard, Inc.: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 54 Bactiguard Holding: Key Financials

    Figure 55 Bactiguard Holding.: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 56 Bactiguard Holding: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 57 Renishaw plc: Key Financials

    Figure 58 Renishaw plc: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 60 Renishaw plc: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 61 Cook Medical: Key Financials

    Figure 62 Cook Medical: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 63 Cook Medical: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 64 Hollister Incorporated: Key Financials

    Figure 65 Hollister Incorporated: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 66 Hollister Incorporated: Geographical Revenue



    This table of content is tentative and subject to change as the research progresses.

    Please Note:  Financial details of company cannot be provided if the information of the company is not available in public domain and or reliable source.