Wheat Protein Market Research Report - Global Forecast till 2027

Global Wheat Protein Market Research Report: By Product Type (Wheat Gluten, Wheat Protein Isolate, Textured Wheat Protein, and Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein), Form (Dry and Liquid), Application (Food & Beverages [Bakery & Confectionery, Functional Foods & Beverages, Meat Substitutes, Sweet & Savory Snacks, and Others], Animal Feed, and Others), and Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World) - Forecast till 2027

ID: MRFR/F-B & N/3998-HCR | February 2021 | Region: Global | 110 pages


Market Scenario


Wheat Protein Market is expected to register a CAGR of 4.39% from 2019 to 2024 and reach USD 2.29 billion by the end of 2024. Wheat protein is obtained by processing wheat, which includes various extraction processes using different enzymes. The increasing demand for plant-sourced foods is expected to drive the growth of the global wheat protein market. Wheat protein provides a better alternative to animal-source protein, which has led to an increase in demand for wheat protein among the growing vegan population. This is anticipated to foster the growth of global wheat protein market. It is widely used in bakeries as it possesses several characteristics such as emulsification, texturing, foaming, and viscoelasticity, which is forecasted to propel the growth of global wheat protein market. Moreover, factors such as government support through subsidies in many developing countries are projected to boost the growth of global wheat protein market. 


Segmentation


The global wheat protein market has been segmented based on product type, form, applications, and region.


The global wheat protein market has been classified, based on product type, as wheat gluten, wheat protein isolate, textured wheat protein, and hydrolyzed wheat protein.


The global wheat protein market has been bifurcated, based on form into dry and liquid.


The global wheat protein market has been segmented, on the basis of application, into food & beverages, animal feed, and others. The food & beverages segment has been further segregated into bakery & confectionery, functional foods & beverages, meat substitutes, sweet & savory snacks, and others.


The global wheat protein market has been analyzed for four key regions—North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the rest of the world.


The North American wheat protein market has further been segmented into the US, Canada, and Mexico.


The European wheat protein market has been classified as the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the rest of Europe. 


The wheat protein market in Asia-Pacific has been divided into China, India, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, and the rest of Asia-Pacific.


The wheat protein market, in the rest of the world, has been segmented into South America, the Middle East, and Africa.


Key Players


The Archer Daniels Midland Company (US), Cargill, Incorporated (US), The Agrana Group (India), MGP Ingredients, Inc. (US), The Manildra Group (Australia), Roquette (France), Glico Nutrition Co.,Ltd. (Japan), Kröner-Stärke (Germany), Tereos Syrol (France), Crespel & Deiters (Germany),  Cropenergies (Germany), Gluten Y Almidones Industriales (Mexico), Agridient B.V. (Netherlands), Amilina, AB (Lithuania), and Xi'an Sheerherb Biotechnology Co. (China) are some of the key players in the global wheat protein market.


Regional Market Summary


Global Wheat Protein Market Share (%), by Region, 2018
 Wheat Protein Market


Product Type: Secondary Product Types and MRFR Analysis


The market in North America is expected to dominate the global wheat protein market due to the growing demand for wheat protein from rising vegan population. Moreover, increasing health awareness among the population is anticipated to boost the demand for wheat protein in the region. 


The market in Asia-Pacific is projected to register the highest CAGR in the global wheat protein market, due to the increasing demand for plant-based food products.


The market in the rest of the world is expected to grow at a steady rate due to increasing disposable rising demand for plant-based foods in many countries of South America such as Argentina, Chile, and Brazil.


Global Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type



  • Wheat Gluten

  • Wheat Protein Isolate

  • Textured Wheat Protein

  • Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein


Global Wheat Protein Market, by Form



  • Dry

  • Liquid


Global Wheat Protein Market, by Applications



  • Food & Beverages

    • Bakery & Confectionery

    • Functional Foods & Beverages

    • Meat Substitutes

    • Sweet & Savory Snacks

    • Others



  • Animal Feed

  • Others


Global Wheat Protein Market, by Region



  • North America

    • US

    • Canada

    • Mexico





  • Europe

    • Germany

    • France

    • Italy

    • Spain

    • UK

    • Rest of Europe





  • Asia-Pacific

    • Japan

    • China

    • India

    • Australia and New Zealand

    • Rest of Asia-Pacific





  • Rest of the World (RoW)

    • South America

    • Middle East

    • Africa




Intended Audience



  • Growers and processors of wheat protein

  • Traders and distributors of wheat protein

  • Research and development institutes

  • Potential investors

  • Raw material suppliers

  • Nationalized laboratories



TABLE OF CONTENTS


1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


1.1. Market Attractiveness Analysis

1.1.1. Global Wheat Protein, by Product Type

1.1.2. Global Wheat Protein, by Form

1.1.3. Global Wheat Protein, by Application

1.1.4. Global Wheat Protein, by Region


MARKET INTRODUCTION


2.1. Definition

2.2. Scope of the Study

2.3. Market Structure

2.4. Key Buying Criteria

2.5. Macro Factor Indicator Analysis


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1. Research Form

3.2. Primary Research

3.3. Secondary Research

3.4. Market Size Estimation

3.5. Forecast Model

3.6. List of Assumptions


MARKET DYNAMICS


4.1. Introduction

4.2. Drivers

4.3. Restraints

4.4. Opportunities

4.5. Challenges


MARKET FACTOR ANALYSIS


5.1. Value Chain Analysis

5.2. Supply Chain Analysis

5.3. Porter’s Five Forces Model

5.3.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers

5.3.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers

5.3.3. Threat of New Entrants

5.3.4. Threat of Substitutes

5.3.5. Intensity of Rivalry


GLOBAL WHEAT PROTEIN, BY PRODUCT TYPE


6.1. Introduction

6.2. Wheat Gluten

6.2.1. Wheat Gluten: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

6.3. Wheat Protein Isolate

6.3.1. Wheat Protein Isolate: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

6.4. Textured Wheat Protein

6.4.1. Textured Wheat Protein: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

6.5. Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein

6.5.1. Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027


GLOBAL WHEAT PROTEIN, BY FORM


7.1. Introduction

7.2. Dry

7.2.1. Dry: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

7.3. Liquid

7.3.1. Liquid: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027


GLOBAL WHEAT PROTEIN, BY APPLICATION


8.1. Introduction

8.2. Food & Beverages

8.2.1. Food & Beverages: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.2.2. Bakery & Confectionery

8.2.2.1. Bakery & Confectionery: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.2.3. Functional Foods & Beverages

8.2.3.1. Functional Foods & Beverages: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.2.4. Meat Substitutes

8.2.4.1. Meat Substitutes: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.2.5. Sweet & Savoury Snacks

8.2.5.1. Sweet & Savoury Snacks: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.2.6. Others

8.2.6.1. Others: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.3. Animal Feed

8.3.1. Animal Feed: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027

8.4. Others

8.4.1. Others: Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region/Country, 2020–2027


GLOBAL WHEAT PROTEIN, BY REGION


9.1. Introduction

9.2. North America

9.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.2.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.2.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

9.2.5. US

9.2.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.2.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.2.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.2.6. Canada

9.2.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.2.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.2.6.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.2.7. Mexico

9.2.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.2.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.2.7.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3. Europe

9.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

9.3.5. Germany

9.3.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3.6. UK

9.3.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.6.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3.7. France

9.3.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.7.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3.8. Spain

9.3.8.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.8.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.8.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3.9. Italy

9.3.9.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.9.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.9.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.3.10. Rest of Europe

9.3.10.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.3.10.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.3.10.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.4. Asia-Pacific

9.4.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.4.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.4.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.4.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

9.4.5. China

9.4.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.4.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.4.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.4.6. Japan

9.4.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.4.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.4.6.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.4.7. India

9.4.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.4.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.4.7.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.4.8. Australia & New Zealand

9.4.8.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.4.8.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.4.8.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.4.9. Rest of Asia-Pacific

9.4.9.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.4.9.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.4.9.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.5. Rest of the World

9.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.5.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2020–2027

9.5.5. South America

9.5.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.5.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.5.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.5.6. Middle East

9.5.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.5.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.5.6.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

9.5.7. Africa

9.5.7.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Product Type, 2020–2027

9.5.7.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Form, 2020–2027

9.5.7.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027


COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE


10.1. Introduction

10.2. Competitive Benchmarking

10.3. Development Share Analysis

10.4. Key Developments & Growth Strategies


COMPANY PROFILES


11.1. The Archer Daniels Midland Company

11.1.1. Company Overview

11.1.2. Financial Overview

11.1.3. Products Offered

11.1.4. Key Developments

11.1.5. SWOT Analysis

11.1.6. Key Strategies

11.2. Cargill, Incorporated

11.2.1. Company Overview

11.2.2. Financial Overview

11.2.3. Products Offered

11.2.4. Key Developments

11.2.5. SWOT Analysis

11.2.6. Key Strategies

11.3. The Agrana Group

11.3.1. Company Overview

11.3.2. Financial Overview

11.3.3. Products Offered

11.3.4. Key Developments

11.3.5. SWOT Analysis

11.3.6. Key Strategies

11.4. MGP Ingredients, Inc.

11.4.1. Company Overview

11.4.2. Financial Overview

11.4.3. Products Offered

11.4.4. Key Developments

11.4.5. SWOT Analysis

11.4.6. Key Strategies

11.5. The Manildra Group

11.5.1. Company Overview

11.5.2. Financial Overview

11.5.3. Products Offered

11.5.4. Key Developments

11.5.5. SWOT Analysis

11.5.6. Key Strategies

11.6. Roquette

11.6.1. Company Overview

11.6.2. Financial Overview

11.6.3. Products Offered

11.6.4. Key Developments

11.6.5. SWOT Analysis

11.6.6. Key Strategies

11.7. Glico Nutrition Co.,Ltd.

11.7.1. Company Overview

11.7.2. Financial Overview

11.7.3. Products Offered

11.7.4. Key Developments

11.7.5. SWOT Analysis

11.7.6. Key Strategies

11.8. Kröner-Stärke

11.8.1. Company Overview

11.8.2. Financial Overview

11.8.3. Products Offered

11.8.4. Key Developments

11.8.5. SWOT Analysis

11.8.6. Key Strategies

11.9. Tereos Syrol

11.9.1. Company Overview

11.9.2. Financial Overview

11.9.3. Products Offered

11.9.4. Key Developments

11.9.5. SWOT Analysis

11.9.6. Key Strategies

11.10. Crespel & Deiters

11.10.1. Company Overview

11.10.2. Financial Overview

11.10.3. Products Offered

11.10.4. Key Developments

11.10.5. SWOT Analysis

11.10.6. Key Strategies

11.11. Cropenergies

11.11.1. Company Overview

11.11.2. Financial Overview

11.11.3. Products Offered

11.11.4. Key Developments

11.11.5. SWOT Analysis

11.11.6. Key Strategies

11.12. Gluten Y Almidones Industriales

11.12.1. Company Overview

11.12.2. Financial Overview

11.12.3. Products Offered

11.12.4. Key Developments

11.12.5. SWOT Analysis

11.12.6. Key Strategies

11.13. Agridient B.V.

11.13.1. Company Overview

11.13.2. Financial Overview

11.13.3. Products Offered

11.13.4. Key Developments

11.13.5. SWOT Analysis

11.13.6. Key Strategies

11.14. Amilina, AB

11.14.1. Company Overview

11.14.2. Financial Overview

11.14.3. Products Offered

11.14.4. Key Developments

11.14.5. SWOT Analysis

11.14.6. Key Strategies

11.15. Crop Energies AG

11.15.1. Company Overview

11.15.2. Financial Overview

11.15.3. Products Offered

11.15.4. Key Developments

11.15.5. SWOT Analysis

11.15.6. Key Strategies


APPENDIX


12.1. General Product Types & References

12.2. List of Abbreviation


LIST OF TABLES


TABLE 1 Global Wheat Protein Market, by Region, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 2 Global Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 3 Global Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 4 Global Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 5 North America: Wheat Protein Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 6 North America: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 7 North America: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 8 North America: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 9 US: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 10 US: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 11 US: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 12 Canada: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 13 Canada: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 14 Canada: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 15 Mexico: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 16 Mexico: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 17 Mexico: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 18 Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 19 Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 20 Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 21 Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 22 Germany: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 23 Germany: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 24 Germany: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 25 France: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 26 France: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 27 France: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 28 Italy: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 29 Italy: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 30 Italy: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 31 Spain: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 32 Spain: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 33 Spain: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 34 UK: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 35 UK: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 36 UK: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 37 Rest of Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 38 Rest of Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 39 Rest of Europe: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 40 Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 41 Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 42 Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 43 Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 44 China: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 45 China: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 46 China: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 47 India: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 48 India: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 49 India: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 50 Japan: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 51 Japan: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 52 Japan: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 53 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 54 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 55 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 56 Rest of the World (RoW): Wheat Protein Market, by Country, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 57 Rest of the World (RoW): Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 58 Rest of the World (RoW): Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 59 Rest of the World (RoW): Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 60 South America: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 61 South America: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 62 South America: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 63 Middle East: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 64 Middle East: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 65 Middle East: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 66 Africa: Wheat Protein Market, by Product Type, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 67 Africa: Wheat Protein Market, by Form, 2020–2027 (USD Million)

TABLE 68 Africa: Wheat Protein Market, by Application, 2020–2027 (USD Million)




LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE 1 Global Wheat Protein Segmentation

FIGURE 2 Forecast Research Methodology

FIGURE 3 Five Forces Analysis of the Global Wheat Protein

FIGURE 4 Value Chain of the Global Wheat Protein

FIGURE 5 Share of the Global Wheat Protein in 2020, by Country (%)

FIGURE 6 Global Wheat Protein, by Region, 2020–2027,

FIGURE 7 Global Wheat Protein Size, by Product Type, 2020

FIGURE 8 Share of the Global Wheat Protein , by Product Type, 2020–2027 (%)

FIGURE 9 Global Wheat Protein Size, by Form, 2020

FIGURE 10 Share of the Global Wheat Protein , by Form, 2020–2027 (%)

FIGURE 11 Global Wheat Protein Size, by Application, 2020

FIGURE 12 Share of the Global Wheat Protein , by Application, 2020–2027 (%)