Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Research Report - Forecast to 2027

Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Report: By Models (Build-To-Order), Functions (Forecasting and Planning), Delivery Mode (On-Premise, Web-based), Software (Planning Tools), Technology (Barcode), End User (Distributors)— Global Forecast Till 2027

ID: MRFR/HCIT/4261-HCR | February 2021 | Region: Global | 100 pages

Please note that the assessment period of report has been updated from 2018-2023 to 2020-2027. Cordially fill the sample form for updated data

Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Scenario


The global healthcare supply chain management market is expected to grow significantly over the forecast period. It is estimated that the global healthcare supply chain management market is expected to register a CAGR ~ 8.2 % during the forecast period from 2018 to 2023. Supply-chain management is a process which includes planning, design, execution, control, and monitoring flow of various goods and services to create competitive logistics infrastructure, increases net value, synchronizing demand and supply of goods to measure performance. The major driving factors of supply chain management in healthcare are increasing globalization, expanding business, fast product life cycle, increasing fragmentation in the healthcare industry, the high economy of scale and other. The other factors responsible to support the market are increasing customer demand, rising customization, growing capabilities of technology and other. However, factors like lack of awareness, low innovation, the high cost of maintenance and installation, issues of integration may restrain the growth of the market.


Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Segmentation


The Healthcare supply chain management market has been segmented into models, functions, delivery mode, software, technology, and end users. The market, on the basis of models, has been segmented into, build-to-order, make-to-stock model, continuous replenishment model, chain assembly and others.


On the basis of function, Healthcare supply chain management market is sub-segmented into forecasting and planning, warehousing and distribution, inventory management and procurement, internal logistics and operations, reverse and extended logistics and others.


On the basis of delivery mode, Healthcare supply chain management market further segmented into on-premise, web-based, and others.


On the basis of software, Healthcare supply chain management market is sub-segmented into planning tools and execution tools. The planning tools are sub-segmented into forecasting and inventory management, supplier and vendor management, production and sales planning, others. Execution tools are further sub-segmented into warehouse management, order processing and status tracking, others. On the basis of technology, the market is sub-segmented into a barcode, radio frequency identification (RFID), global positioning system (GPS), internet of things and big data, others. On the basis of end users pharmaceutical and biotech companies, logistics companies and distributors, healthcare providers, and others.


Healthcare supply chain management market has been segmented, by region, into the Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa. The Healthcare supply chain management market in the Americas has further been segmented into North America and South America, with the North American market divided into the US and Canada.


The European healthcare supply chain management market has been segmented into Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Western Europe has further been classified as Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain, and the rest of Western Europe. 


The healthcare supply chain management market in Asia-Pacific has been segmented into Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, and the rest of Asia-Pacific. The Healthcare supply chain management market in the Middle East & Africa has been segmented into the Middle East and Africa.


Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Key players


The major key players of the global healthcare supply chain management market include SAP (Germany), Infor (US), Oracle (US), GHX (US), TECSYS (Canada), McKesson (US), Manhattan Associates (US), Jump Technologies (US), JDA Software (US), and LogiTag Systems (Israel), Advocate Health Care (Murray, UT), and others.


Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Regional Summary


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share (%), by Region, 2017


Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market SharE


Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)


Geographically, the Americas is anticipated to dominate the global healthcare supply chain management market owing to the developed healthcare sector, the presence of a large number of top biotech and pharmaceutical companies there, along with government initiatives, and rising technological advancement, increase in demand of medical devices. In the International Trade Administration 2016 report according to Government Accountability Office's (GAO) statistics, the US generated approximately USD 45 billion by exporting medical devices in 2015. The exporting of medical devices and generating a large amount of revenue support the supply chain management in the healthcare sector.


Europe is expected to hold the second largest position in the global healthcare supply chain management market. According to the European Commission, June 2017, publication Europe is one of the world’s leading exporter of pharmaceutical and medicinal products. Also, in 2016 Europe accounted for EUR 144 billion, by exporting pharmaceutical product worldwide. The increase in import and export for healthcare related products will enhance Healthcare supply chain management market in this region.  


Asia-Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing region in the market due to the rising prevalence of chronic disease and an increase in the demand for pharmaceutical products & medical devices. Also, increased expenditure in the healthcare sector is expected to enhance the growth in this market. On the other hand, the Middle East & Africa accounts the lowest share of the market. Healthcare supply chain management market of this region is expected to be held by the Middle Eastern region due to a developed healthcare sector and growing government initiatives for the healthcare sector.


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models



  •  Make-To-Stock Model

  • Build-To-Order

  • Continuous Replenishment Model

  • Chain Assembly

  • Other


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Function



  • Forecasting and Planning

  • Inventory Management and Procurement

  • Internal Logistics and Operations

  • Warehousing and Distribution

  • Reverse and Extended logistics

  • Other


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode



  • On-Premise

  • Web-based

  • Cloud


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software



  • Planning Tools



  • Forecasting and Inventory Management

  • Supplier and Vendor Management

  • Production and Sales Planning

  • Execution Tools



  • Warehouse Management

  • Order Processing and Status Tracking

  • Other


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology



  • Barcode

  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User



  • Pharmaceutical and Biotech Companies

  • Logistics Companies

  • Distributors

  • Healthcare Providers

  • Other


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Region



  • Americas



  • North America

  • US

  • Canada

  • South America



  • Europe



  • Western Europe

  • Germany

  • France

  • Italy

  • Spain

  • UK

  • Rest of Western Europe

  • Eastern Europe



  • Asia-Pacific



  • Japan

  • China

  • India

  • Australia

  • South Korea

  • Rest of Asia-Pacific



  • Middle East & Africa



  • Middle East

  • Africa


Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Key Players


The major key players of the global healthcare supply chain management market are SAP (Germany), Infor (US), Oracle (US), GHX (US), TECSYS (Canada), McKesson (US), Manhattan Associates (US), Jump Technologies (US), JDA Software (US), LogiTag Systems (Israel), Advocate Health Care (Murray, UT), and others.


Intended Audience



  • Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Companies

  • Healthcare IT Service Providers

  • Healthcare Software Solution Providers

  • Research and Development (R&D) Companies

  • Healthcare Medical Device Manufacturers

  • Diagnostic Laboratories

  • Government Research Institutes

  • Academic Institutes and Universities



Report Scope:
Report Attribute/Metric Details
  Market Size   2027: Significant Value
  CAGR   8.2% (2018-2023)
  Base Year   2019
  Forecast Period   2020-2027
  Historical Data   2018
  Forecast Units   Value (USD Million)
  Report Coverage   Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, and Trends
  Segments Covered   Models, Functions, Delivery Mode, End User
  Geographies Covered   North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW)
  Key Vendors   SAP (Germany), Infor (US), Oracle (US), GHX (US), TECSYS (Canada), McKesson (US), Manhattan Associates (US), Jump Technologies (US), JDA Software (US), and LogiTag Systems (Israel), Advocate Health Care (Murray, UT), and others.
  Key Market Opportunities   New product launches and R&D Amongst major key Players
  Key Market Drivers

  • Increasing globalization
  • Expanding business
  • Fast product life cycle Increasing fragmentation in the healthcare industry
  • The high economy of scale and other


  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :


    The healthcare supply chain management market may register a CAGR of 8.2% during the forecast period of 2018 to 2023.

    The healthcare supply chain management market would benefit from growing fragmentation in the healthcare industry, increasing globalization, business expansion, the high economy of scale, improving product life cycle, and others.

    The Americas would dominate the healthcare supply chain management market with a maximum revenue-generation capacity.

    End user industries like the logistics companies & distributors, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical & biotech companies, and others would assist growth for the healthcare supply chain management market.

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    Chapter 1. Report Prologue

    Chapter 2. MarketIntroduction

    2.1 Definition

    2.2 Scope of the Study

    2.2.1 Research Objective

    2.2.2 Assumptions

    2.2.3 Limitations

    Chapter 3. Research Methodology

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Primary Research

    3.3 Secondary Research

    3.4 Market Size Estimation

    Chapter 4. Market Dynamics

    4.1 Drivers

    4.2 Restraints

    4.3 Opportunities

    4.4 Challenges

    4.5 Macroeconomic Indicators

    4.6 Technology Trends & Assessment

    Chapter 5. Market Factor Analysis

    5.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

    5.1.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers

    5.1.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers

    5.1.3 Threat of New Entrants

    5.1.4 Threat of Substitutes

    5.1.5 Intensity of Rivalry

    5.2 Value Chain Analysis

    5.3 Investment Feasibility Analysis

    5.4 Pricing Analysis

    Chapter 6. Global Market, by Models

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Make-To-Stock Model

    6.3 Build-To-Order

    6.4 Continuous Replenishment Model

    6.5 Chain Assembly

    6.6 Other

    Chapter 7. GlobalMarket, by Functions

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Forecasting and Planning

    7.3 Inventory Management and Procurement

    7.4 Internal Logistics and Operations

    7.5 Warehousing and Distribution

    7.6 Reverse and Extended logistics

    7.7 Other

    Chapter 8. GlobalMarket, by Delivery Mode

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 On-Premise

    8.3 Web-based

    8.4 Cloud

    Chapter 9. GlobalMarket, by Software

    9.1 Planning Tools

    9.1.1 Forecasting and Inventory Management

    9.1.2 Supplier and Vendor Management

    9.1.3 Production and Sales Planning

    9.2 Execution Tools

    9.2.1 Warehouse Management

    9.2.2 Order Processing and Status Tracking

    9.2.3 Other

    Chapter 10. GlobalMarket, by Technology

    10.1 Barcode

    10.2 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    10.3 Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Chapter 11. GlobalMarket, by End-User

    11.1 Pharmaceutical and Biotech Companies

    11.1 Logistics Companies

    11.1 Distributors

    11.1 Healthcare Providers

    11.1 Others

    Chapter 12. GlobalMarket, by Region

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 America

    12.2.1 North America

    12.2.1.1 US

    12.2.1.2 Canada

    12.2.2 South America

    12.3 Europe

    12.3.1 Western Europe

    9.3.1.1 Germany

    12.3.1.2 France

    12.3.1.3 Italy

    12.3.1.4 Spain

    12.3.1.5 UK

    12.3.1.6 Rest of Western Europe

    12.3.2 Eastern Europe

    12.4 Asia-Pacific

    12.4.1 Japan

    12.4.2 China

    12.4.3 India

    12.4.4 Australia

    12.4.5 Republic of Korea

    12.4.6 Rest of Asia-Pacific

    12.5 Middle East & Africa

    12.5.1 United Arab Emirates

    12.5.2 Saudi Arabia

    12.5.3 Oman

    12.5.4 Kuwait

    12.5.5 Qatar

    12.5.6 Rest of the Middle East & Africa

    Chapter 13. Company Landscape

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Market Share Analysis

    13.3 Key Development & Strategies

    13.3.1 Key Developments

    Chapter 14 Company Profiles

    14.1 SAP

    14.1.1 Company Overview

    14.1.2 Type Overview

    14.1.3 Financials

    14.2.4 Key Developments

    14.1.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.2 Infor

    14.2.1 Company Overview

    14.2.2 Type Overview

    14.2.3 Financial Overview

    14.2.4 Key Developments

    14.2.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.3 Oracle

    14.3.1 Company Overview

    14.3.2 Type Overview

    14.3.3 Financial Overview

    14.3.4 Key Development

    14.3.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.4 GHX

    14.4.1 Company Overview

    14.4.2 Type/Business Segment Overview

    14.4.3 Financial Overview

    14.4.4 Key Development

    14.4.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.5 TECSYS

    14.5.1 Company Overview

    14.5.2 Type Overview

    14.5.3 Financial overview

    14.5.4 Key Developments

    14.5.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.6 McKesson

    14.6.1 Company Overview

    14.6.2 Type Overview

    14.6.3 Financial Overview

    14.6.4 Key Developments

    14.6.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.7 Manhattan Associates

    14.7.1 Overview

    14.7.2 Type Overview

    14.7.3 Financials

    14.7.4 Key Developments

    14.7.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.8 JUMP TECHNOLOGIES

    14.8.1 Overview

    14.8.2 Type Overview

    14.8.3 Financials

    14.8.4 Key Developments

    14.8.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.9 JDA Software

    14.9.1 Overview

    14.9.2 Type Overview

    14.9.3 Financials

    14.9.4 Key Developments

    14.9.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.10 LogiTag Systems

    14.10.1 Overview

    14.10.2 Type Overview

    14.10.3 Financials

    14.10.4 Key Developments

    14.10.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.11 Advocate Health Care

    14.11.1 Overview

    14.11.2 Type Overview

    14.11.3 Financials

    14.11.4 Key Developments

    14.11.5 SWOT Analysis

    14.12 Others

    Chapter 15 Appendix

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Industry Synopsis, 2020–2027

    Table 2 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 3 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Region, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 4 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 5 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 6 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 7 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 8 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 9 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 10 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 11 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 12 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 13 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 14 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 15 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-users, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 17 US: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 18 US: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 19 US: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 20 US: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 21 US: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 22 US: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 23 Canada: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 24 Canada: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 25 Canada: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 26 Canada: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 27 Canada: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 28 Canada: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 29 South America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 30 South America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 31 South America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 32 South America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 33 South America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 34 South America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 35 Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 36 Europe:1 Flexible & Semi-rigid Ureteroscopy Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 37 Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 38 Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 39 Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 40 Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 41 Western Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 42 Western Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions,2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 43 Western Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 44 Western Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 45 Western Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 46 Western Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 47 Eastern Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 48 Eastern Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 49 Eastern Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 50 Eastern Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 51 Eastern Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 52 Eastern Europe: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 53 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 54 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 55 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 56 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 57 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 58 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 59 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Models, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 60 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Functions, 2020 –2027, (USD Million)

    Table 61 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by End-User, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 62 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Software, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 63 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Technology, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    Table 64 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market, by Delivery Mode, 2020–2027, (USD Million)

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1 Research Process

    Figure 2 Segmentation for the Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market

    Figure 3 Market Dynamics for the Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market

    Figure 4 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Models 2020

    Figure 5 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Functions, 2020

    Figure 6 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Delivery Mode, 2020

    Figure 7 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Software, 2020

    Figure 8 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Technology, 2020

    Figure 9 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by End-User, 2020

    Figure 10 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Region, 2020

    Figure 11 North America: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 12 Europe: Prescribed Health Apps Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 13 Asia-Pacific: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 14 Middle East & Africa: Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market Share, by Country, 2020

    Figure 15 Global Healthcare Supply Chain Management Market: Company Share Analysis, 2020 (%)

    Figure 16 SAP:Key Financials

    Figure 17 SAP:Segmental Revenue

    Figure 18 SAP:Geographical Revenue

    Figure 19 Infor:Key Financials

    Figure 20 Infor:Segmental Revenue

    Figure 21 Infor:Geographical Revenue

    Figure 22 Oracle:Key Financials

    Figure 23 Oracle: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 24 Oracle: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 25 GHX: Key Financials

    Figure 26 GHX: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 27 GHX: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 28 TECSYS: Key Financials

    Figure 29 TECSYS: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 30 TECSYS: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 31 McKesson: Key Financials

    Figure 32 McKesson: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 33 McKesson: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 34 Manhattan Associates: Key Financials

    Figure 35 Manhattan Associates: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 36 Manhattan Associates: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 37 Jump Technologies: Key Financials

    Figure 38 Jump Technologies: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 39 Jump Technologies: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 40 JDA Software: Key Financials

    Figure 41 JDA Software: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 42 JDA Software: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 43 LogiTag Systems: Key Financials

    Figure 44 LogiTag Systems: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 45 LogiTag Systems: Geographical Revenue

    Figure 46 Advocate Health Care: Key Financials

    Figure 47 Advocate Health Care: Segmental Revenue

    Figure 48 Advocate Health Care: Geographical Revenue