Nylon is a synthetic, semi-crystalline polymer material whose name is derived from its original trade name, DuPont Nylon. Nylon was created as a replacement for silk, and has even been called "The fabric of tomorrow". It was created by Wallace Carothers and his colleagues at DuPont in 1935. The material was first introduced to the textile industry in October 1938 as a potential replacement for silk stockings during World War II.
It is sometimes called "polyamide" which is the name for the family of materials to which nylon belongs. It is a white lightweight material that is resistant to abrasion and tears but easily melts when exposed to heat. It can be stretched up to three times its original length and has a high tensile strength and good elasticity. Nylon initially became popular after the invention of Spandex, a similar polymer that allowed products made from nylon to have elastic properties in addition to being durable.
The success of nylon depended on the production of affordable and efficient manufacturing processes. In 1940, an efficient method for producing the fibers was invented, leading almost immediately to widespread commercial use.
Nylon is a synthetic fabric material that was first developed in 1935 and introduced in 1946. The word "nylon" is short for "polyamide". Nylon has a unique lustrous appearance which does not make it the most popular choice among clothing materials, but its durability and elasticity have made it an important part of many industrial applications.
Nylon fibers are resistant to stretching, which means they do not warp or shrink over time. Nylons also tend to maintain their strength and color when wet. And since nylon fabrics are easy to dye, they can be dyed any color without fear of bleeding one color onto another or the garment being destroyed by heat from the dyeing process.
While nylon is one of the most difficult synthetic fibers to produce, it is also one of the strongest. A 4-ounce sample of nylon can withstand a force of 120 pounds without breaking. Another unique quality of nylon is that it tends to hold its shape over long periods of time, which makes it an ideal material for industrial applications. In addition, nylon's resilience allows it to be drawn into fine strands for use in fishing lines and thread. The durability and elasticity of nylon fibers are also suited to a variety of medical applications including sutures, artificial heart valves, and knee joints.
The first step in making nylon begins with the production of Acrylonitrile, which is a chemical that can be derived from crude oil or natural gas. The nitrile process—which involves boiling the crude oil or natural gas and then passing those vapors through a catalyst—yields acrylonitrile. The resulting product is then formed into solid rods which are cut into smaller pieces, called flakes. These flakes are combined with other chemicals in a mixing tank to form nylon pellets in various sizes and shapes.
Next these pellets are heated and extruded through an open-ended spinnerette to form long strands of fiber. The spinnerette is a nozzle-like apparatus with holes that allow the material to pass through in the form of strands. The various sizes and lengths of diameters of these strands are chosen according to the type and application of the finished product.
Nylon fiber is then dried for up to 24 hours and stretched into a single-strand yarn. The air-drying process makes it possible for nylon to be produced in varying degrees of stiffness or elasticity, depending on the application. Nylon yarn is also produced by dissolving nylon pellets in boiling water, which then solidifies into a chalky material that can be cut into any shape or size.