Internet of Things (IoT): Terminology, Technology and Utility, Devices, Future of IoT

February 2021

Terminology


Kevin Ashton, the consumer sensor expert has coined the term “internet of things”- describing it as the network that bridges the physical world with that of the internet. The worldwide web or the internet has become a household term, with each individual heavily reliant on the use of technology for an efficient lifestyle. Rapid development in technology has resulted in the growth of IoT, commonly known as the internet of things. In lucid terms, it refers to the communication between electronic devices and sensors via the internet, to ensure efficient functioning of businesses, organizations, government, public and private industries. IoT is gaining prominence in our lives through its diverse ability to infuse smart systems, intelligent devices and sensors.


Specific Domains in which IoT Application is used



  • Wearables

  • Smart Home Technology

  • Healthcare

  • Smart Cities

  • Agriculture

  • Industrial Automation



  • Wearables: The wearable industry is one of the earliest incubators of IoT. Popular among those are Fitbits, heart rate monitors and smartwatches. With Apple, OnePlus, Samsung and Mi reigning markets with their innovation and upgrading of smart watches. IoT has indeed become a quotidian aspect of our lives. Popular survey reports the estimated sale of IoT at over 1 billion by 2022.



  • Smart Home Technology: Effective utilisation of technology at home has brought energy conservation to the front-and-centre of lifestyle. Smart home automation is employed by devices such as lights, doors and windows, thermostat. Time sensors employed by such devices enable one to save power. Starting from temperature sensors to light and motion sensors.



  • Healthcare: Being one of the prominent sectors, IoT in healthcare allows doctors and patients to keep a close vigilance of health-related information. It also facilities remote communication between the doctor and the patients. A process of data collection from IoT allows medical professionals to deliver good-quality treatment to their patients. Internet of Things in the medical sector accentuates a pro-active approach towards healthcare. Systems and software, devices, services and technologies are some of the key components of IoT in this sector.



  • Smart Cities: A successful management of the urban landscape is crucial for the growth and management of resources. IoT ensures the proper deployment of technology to improve infrastructure and services. Smart Cities utilize the IoT devices such as lights, connected sensors, and meters to collect and collate data. A systematic planning of city, waste management and traffic management. For instance, New York City has incorporated a congestion management system which has reduced travel times in Midtown Avenue’s by 10%.



  • Agriculture: Survey reveals a growth in population to about 10 billion by 2050. This alarming figure immediately brings to our minds the growing consumers of food grains, hence a productive agricultural system to meet growing demands. Operational efficiency, reduced costs, and improvement of quality can be facilitated through the use of ‘Smart Farming.’ It is a capital-intensive system for growing food in a hygienic manner. Utilisation of sensors, (light, humidity, temperature, soil moisture) are crucial factors for measuring the quality of food crops. IoT-based systems enable farmers to control the field conditions remotely.

  • Industrial Automation: Control devices like computers, robots are used by IoT for automation and access to the industrial sector. It permits data collection and organization for the management for analysis of various data sources. The interconnected network of devices in an industrial set-up allows access and monitoring of information.


IoT is estimated to grow in the future with an inclination towards industrial usage and a focus on disaster management. Yet another advancement that will eliminate cyber threats is the use of blockchain. Entrepreneurship will grow with the ability of all sectors of economy to take measured risks through an analysis of data.

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