Hardware Acceleration Market Research Report - Global Forecast till 2027

Hardware Acceleration Market Research Report: by Type (Graphics Processing Unit, Video Processing Unit, AI Accelerator, Regular Expression accelerator, Cryptographic Accelerator and others), by Application (Deep Learning Training, Public Cloud Inference, Enterprise Inference and others), by End User (Information Technology and Telecommunication, BFSI, Retail, Hospitality, Logistics, Automotive, Healthcare, Energy and others) and by Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa, Central and South America) - Forecast till 2027

ID: MRFR/SEM/6777-HCR | February 2021 | Region: Global | 111 pages

Market Synopsis


The Global Hardware Acceleration Market is expected to grow from USD 3.12 billion in 2018 to USD ~50 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of ~49% during the forecast period. CPUs are is considered as the main component of a computer system. They are designed to handle any task allocated; however, it is not the most effective tool to accomplish specific tasks, especially those that require a number of repetitive mathematical functions such as graphics rendering or video decoding. A graphics processing unit (GPU) is used to perform mathematical calculations and heavy-duty graphics processing tasks such as  3D rendering and video decoding. The GPU is specially designed to handle these tasks and assist in performing tasks much better than CPUs; it also  frees up the CPU to do other tasks. Thus, the adoption of GPU by various industries for performing tasks rapidly and efficiently is propelling the growth of the global hardware acceleration market. Since past few years, both startups and established chip vendors have introduced an impressive new-generation hardware architecture such as AI-accelerator chip architecture optimized for various workloads. These new hardware innovations are coming to market to accelerate the specific data-driven tasks related to machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing, and other AI workloads that range from storage-intensive training to compute-intensive inferencing. Thus, the growing demand for AI-accelerator chips for highly specific roles, such as computer vision, in the proliferating cloud-to-edge ecosystem is driving the growth of the market.


Furthermore, innovation in AI robotics, self-driving vehicles, drones, smart appliances, and industrial IoT are factors  expected to fuel the growth of hardware acceleration market in the


coming years. However, including extra processing hardware for specific features incurs high costs, both in terms of development costs and also silicon area; these increase the overall cost of the systems or device. Thus, the high cost of the system is hampering the growth of the market.


Hardware acceleration is a process in which a task-specific hardware is installed in the computer to perform functions faster than the standard computing architecture of a normal central processing unit (CPU). In hardware acceleration, graphics or video processing chips are used to perform heavy computing tasks and operations. Sound cards enable higher-quality playback and recording of sound. Also, graphics cards can be utilized by hardware acceleration to allow quicker, higher-quality playback of movies, videos, and games. Graphic cards can also be used for better physics calculations and fast mathematical calculations. For instance, in Chrome, GPU hardware acceleration typically allows seamless browsing and media streaming.


Key Developments



  • In May 2019, Google announced that GPU hardware acceleration for Linux can now be used for Chrome OS devices. However, currently ,the feature is enabled only through a specific command line when starting up the virtual machine for a Linux container.



  • In May 2019, SoftIron, a Silicon Valley-based enterprise storage startup, launched Accepherator, a dedicated hardware to accelerate erasure coding to dramatically alter the standard practice of data redundancy, enabling enterprises to significantly save resources in the process.



  • In October 2018, NVIDIA introduced RAPIDS, an open-source GPU-acceleration platform for data science and machine learning, to enable large enterprises to analyze massive amounts of data and make accurate business predictions at unprecedented speeds.



  • In October 2017, Knowles Corporation introduced IA8508, a new audio processor platform, to optimize the performance and power in both near and far-field voice applications. It is considered as the perfect solution for mobile phones, ear-worn products, and IoT devices such as digital assistants, smart speakers, and TVs


Segmentation


The hardware acceleration market has been segmented on the basis of type, application, end user, and region.


By type, the global hardware acceleration market has been segmented graphics processing unit, video processing unit, AI accelerator, regular expression accelerator, cryptographic accelerator, and others


Based on application, the global hardware acceleration market has been segmented into deep learning training, public cloud inference, enterprise inference, and others.


Based on end user, the global hardware acceleration market has been segmented into information technology and telecommunication, BFSI, retail, hospitality, logistics, automotive, healthcare, energy, and others.


The global hardware acceleration market, by region, has been classified into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East & Africa, and Central and South America.


Regional Analysis


The global hardware acceleration market is projected to grow at a significant rate during the forecast period from 2019 to 2025. The geographic analysis of the hardware acceleration market has been conducted for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East & Africa, and Central and South America.


North America, followed by Europe, accounts for the largest market share as countries such as the US, Germany, and the UK are the early adopters of new technologies. Most of the companies in this region have already implemented hardware accelerators for better performance. Asia-Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing regional market during the forecast period. The growing semiconductor and IT sectors in countries such as  China, Japan, and India are expected to enhance the growth of the global hardware acceleration market in this North America.


Hardware Acceleration Market
 Hardware Acceleration Market


Source: MRFR Analysis


Competitive Analysis


Nowadays, major vendors have started developing solutions tailored to specific industries, processors, and operating systems need. Also, accelerator developer mainly focuses on providing its customers with software that would allow accelerator to communicate with the computer system. Companies are experimenting with different ways to reduce the complexity of hardware acceleration and lowering the cost while increasing the number of applications for the technology.


Key Players


The key players in the hardware acceleration market are NVIDIA Corporation (US), Intel Corporation (US), Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (US), Achronix Semiconductor (US), Oracle Corporation (US), Xilinx, Inc. (US), IBM Corporation (US), Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company (US), Dell (US), and Lenovo Group Limited (China).


Other prominent players studied for the hardware acceleration market are Fujitsu Ltd (Japan), Cisco Systems, Inc. (US), VMware, Inc. (US), Enyx (France), HAX (US), Revvx (India), AlphaLab Gear (US), HWTrek (Taiwan), Wazer (China), and Teradici (Canada).


Intended Audience



  • Software-as-a-service (SaaS) providers

  • Platform-as-a-service (PaaS) providers

  • Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) providers

  • System integrators

  • Market research and consulting firms

  • Head of IT and operations in organizations

  • Investors and venture capitalists

  • Business intelligence providers

  • Venture capitalists, private equity firms, and start-up companies

  • Government organizations



Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :


The hardware acceleration market is expected to expand at 49% CAGR.

The hardware acceleration market is anticipated to attain a valuation of USD 50 Bn.

Innovation in self-driving vehicles, AI robotics, drones, industrial IoT, and smart appliances are anticipated to drive market growth.

The high cost of the technology is assessed to check market expansion rate.

The type-based segments of the hardware acceleration market are cryptographic accelerator, graphics processing unit, AI accelerator, video processing unit, regular expression accelerator, and others

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

2 Scope of the Report

2.1 Market Definition

2.2 Scope of the Study

2.3 Research Objectives

2.4 Markets Structure

3 Research Methodology

4 Market Landscape

4.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

4.1.1 Threat of New Entrants

4.1.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers

4.1.3 Threat of Substitutes

4.1.4 Intensity of Rivalry

4.1.5 Bargaining Power of Suppliers

4.2 Value Chain/Supply Chain of Global Hardware Acceleration Market

5 Market Landscape

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Growth Drivers

5.3 Impact Analysis

5.4 Market Restraints

6 Market Trends

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Growth Trends

6.3 Impact Analysis

7 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Graphics Processing Unit

7.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.3 Video Processing Unit

7.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.4 AI Accelerator

7.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.5 Regular Expression Accelerator

7.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.6 Cryptographic Accelerator

7.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

7.7 Others

7.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Deep Learning Training

8.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.3 Public Cloud Inference

8.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.4 Enterprise Inference

8.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

8.5 Others

8.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Information Technology and Telecommunication

9.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.3 BFSI

9.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.4 Retail

9.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.5 Hospitality

9.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.6 Logistics

9.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.7 Automotive

9.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.8 Healthcare

9.8.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.9 Energy

9.9.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

9.10 Others

9.10.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2020–2027

10 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Region

10.1 Introduction

10.2 North America

10.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

10.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.2.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.2.4 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.2.5 US

10.2.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.2.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.2.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.2.6 Mexico

10.2.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.2.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.2.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.2.7 Canada

10.2.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.2.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.2.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3 Europe

10.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

10.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.4 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3.5 Germany

10.3.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3.6 France

10.3.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3.7 Italy

10.3.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3.8 Spain

10.3.8.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.8.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.8.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3.9 UK

10.3.9.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.9.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.9.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.3.10 Rest of Europe

10.3.10.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.3.10.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.3.10.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.4 Asia-Pacific

10.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

10.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.4.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.4.4 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.4.5 China

10.4.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.4.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.4.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.4.6 India

10.4.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.4.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.4.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.4.7 Japan

10.4.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.4.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.4.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.4.8 South Korea

10.4.8.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.4.8.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.4.8.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.4.9 Rest of Asia-Pacific

10.4.9.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.4.9.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.4.9.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.5 Rest of the World

10.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2020–2027

10.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.5.4 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.5.5 Middle East & Africa

10.5.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.5.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.5.5.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

10.5.6 South America

10.5.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2020–2027

10.5.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast, by Application, 2020–2027

10.5.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast, by End User, 2020–2027

11 Competitive Landscape

12 Company Profiles

12.1 NVIDIA Corporation

12.1.1 Company Overview

12.1.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.1.3 Financial Updates

12.1.4 Key Developments

12.1.5 SWOT Analysis

12.1.6 Key Strategies

12.2 Intel Corporation

12.2.1 Company Overview

12.2.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.2.3 Financial Updates

12.2.4 Key Developments

12.2.5 SWOT Analysis

12.2.6 Key Strategies

12.3 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.

12.3.1 Company Overview

12.3.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.3.3 Financial Updates

12.3.4 Key Developments

12.3.5 SWOT Analysis

12.3.6 Key Strategies

12.4 Achronix Semiconductor

12.4.1 Company Overview

12.4.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.4.3 Financial Updates

12.4.4 Key Developments

12.4.5 SWOT Analysis

12.4.6 Key Strategies

12.5 Oracle Corporation

12.5.1 Company Overview

12.5.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.5.3 Financial Updates

12.5.4 Key Developments

12.5.5 SWOT Analysis

12.5.6 Key Strategies

12.6 Xilinx, Inc.

12.6.1 Company Overview

12.6.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.6.3 Financial Updates

12.6.4 Key Developments

12.6.5 SWOT Analysis

12.6.6 Key Strategies

12.7 IBM Corporation

12.7.1 Company Overview

12.7.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.7.3 Financial Updates

12.7.4 Key Developments

12.7.5 SWOT Analysis

12.7.6 Key Strategies

12.8 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company

12.8.1 Company Overview

12.8.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.8.3 Financial Updates

12.8.4 Key Developments

12.8.5 SWOT Analysis

12.8.6 Key Strategies

12.9 Dell

12.9.1 Company Overview

12.9.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.9.3 Financial Updates

12.9.4 Key Developments

12.9.5 SWOT Analysis

12.9.6 Key Strategies

12.10 Lenovo Group Limited

12.10.1 Company Overview

12.10.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.10.3 Financial Updates

12.10.4 Key Developments

12.10.5 SWOT Analysis

12.10.6 Key Strategies

12.11 Fujitsu Ltd

12.11.1 Company Overview

12.11.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.11.3 Financial Updates

12.11.4 Key Developments

12.11.5 SWOT Analysis

12.11.6 Key Strategies

12.12 Cisco Systems, Inc.

12.12.1 Company Overview

12.12.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.12.3 Financial Updates

12.12.4 Key Developments

12.12.5 SWOT Analysis

12.12.6 Key Strategies

12.13 VMware, Inc.

12.13.1 Company Overview

12.13.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.13.3 Financial Updates

12.13.4 Key Developments

12.13.5 SWOT Analysis

12.13.6 Key Strategies

12.14 Enyx

12.14.1 Company Overview

12.14.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.14.3 Financial Updates

12.14.4 Key Developments

12.14.5 SWOT Analysis

12.14.6 Key Strategies

12.15 HAX

12.15.1 Company Overview

12.15.2 End User/Business Segment Overview

12.15.3 Financial Updates

12.15.4 Key Developments

12.15.5 SWOT Analysis

12.15.6 Key Strategies

13 Conclusion


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 2 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 3 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 4 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Region, 2020–2027

Table 5 North America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Country, 2020–2027

Table 6 North America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 7 North America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 8 North America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 9 US: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 10 US: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 11 US: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 12 Canada: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 13 Canada: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 14 Canada: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 15 Mexico: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 16 Mexico: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 17 Mexico: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 18 Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Country, 2020–2027

Table 19 Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 20 Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 21 Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 22 Germany: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 23 Germany: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 24 Germany: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 25 France: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 26 France: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 27 France: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 28 Italy: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 29 Italy: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 30 Italy: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 31 Spain: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 32 Spain: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 33 Spain: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 34 UK: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 35 UK: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 36 UK: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 37 Rest of Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 38 Rest of Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 39 Rest of Europe: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 40 Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Country, 2020–2027

Table 41 Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 42 Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 43 Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 44 China: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 45 China: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 46 China: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 47 Japan: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 48 Japan: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 49 Japan: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 50 India: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 51 India: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 52 India: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 53 South Korea: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 54 South Korea: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 55 South Korea: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 56 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 57 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 58 Rest of Asia-Pacific: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 59 Rest of the World: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Country, 2020–2027

Table 60 Rest of the World: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 61 Rest of the World: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 62 Rest of the World: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 63 Middle East and Africa: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 64 Middle East and Africa: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 65 Middle East and Africa: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

Table 66 South America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020–2027

Table 67 South America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020–2027

Table 68 South America: Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020–2027

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 Global Hardware Acceleration Market Segmentation

FIGURE 2 Forecast Methodology

FIGURE 3 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis of the Global Hardware Acceleration Market

FIGURE 4 Value Chain of the Global Hardware Acceleration Market

FIGURE 5 Share of the Global Hardware Acceleration Market in 2020, by Country (in %)

FIGURE 6 Global Hardware Acceleration Market, 2020–2027

FIGURE 7 Global Hardware Acceleration Market Size, by Type, 2020

FIGURE 8 Share of the Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Type, 2020 to 2027

FIGURE 9 Global Hardware Acceleration Market Size, by Application, 2020

FIGURE 10 Share of Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by Application, 2020 to 2027

FIGURE 13 Global Hardware Acceleration Market Size, by End User, 2020

FIGURE 14 Share of the Global Hardware Acceleration Market, by End User, 2020 to 2027